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Effect of Same-Sex Marriage on the Legal Structure of Gender in All Marriages Term Paper

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Updated: Jan 6th, 2022

Abstract, Critique, and Diaries

Article 1

Hatzenbuehler, M. L., McLaughlin, K. A., Keyes, K. M., & Deborah S. Hasin. (2010). The Impact of Institutional Discrimination on Psychiatric Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: A Prospective Study. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 452-459. Web.

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is investigating the relationship between the psychiatric morbidity of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population and the fact of those populations residing in stats that instituted bans of same-sex marriages during 2004 and 2—5 elections. The investigation was conducted through longitudinal study of national study of two samples of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Quantitative and qualitative data was collected on the participants, including such aspects self-identification as LGB, the constitutional status of same-sex marriage in the states in which the participants reside, and the prevalence of DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders between 2001 to 2002 and 2004 to 2005. The results of the study showed that there is a significant decrease in DSM-IV among LGB respondents who lived in states that banned same-sex marriage, as opposed to heterosexuals for whom no evidence were found of an increase of the same magnitude. The most significant increases are related to mood disorder (36.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (248.2%), alcohol use disorder (41.9%), and psychiatric comorbidity disorder 36.3%).

The Diary

Everything is going great in the semester so far. I think that the selection of the topic was successful, considering that the repeal of the “don’t ask, don’t tell” in the news. However, the selection of the article might not be so successful, being connected only partially to the topic. More research might have been required.

Critique

The selection of the article was driven by the intention to show a cause and effect relationship between the fact of legalization of same sex marriage and the main shareholders in such issue, i.e. LGB population. Despite the fact that the current article does not address the gender roles in the family, parallels can be drawn showing that in no way the institutionalization of same-sex marriage can have an effect on the heterosexual couples, which was one of the findings of the study.

The article can be related to the studied text, indicating potential consequences of bans on marriage, which in terms might lead to economical consequences among others. The legal form of marriage might have an economic impact, a simple example of which can be seen through the use of insurance by partners. In that regard, the psychological consequences can be seen as one of the impacts of such bans.

The article can be used to make parallels with the system theory arguing how the changes within a single system, i.e. a family might influence the society as a whole. The investigation in the article is viewed in terms of whether individual discrimination can impact the health of the populations. The individual discrimination can be seen as a smaller subsystem, within the same-sex couples’ relationships, while the health system and the relationships within all families can be seen as the larger system that can be influenced.

The issues raised by the article can be seen important in the social context, but nevertheless, the author failed to indicate the whole picture of the implications that might arise from such findings. Such implications, although brief, are nevertheless, useful in terms of explaining the pattern through which the legalization of same sex marriage can influence psychological morbidity, e.g. socio-cultural environment and negative campaigns. The influence of the direct legal consequences or their absence on same-sex couples is absent, just as the relationship of such influence of psychological morbidity.

Article 2

Moscowitz, L. M. (2010). Gay Marriage in Television News: Voice and Visual Representation in the Same-Sex Marriage Debate. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(1), 24-39. Web.

Abstract

The article aims at investigating the representation of same-sex marriage debates in television news. The article reports a content-analysis study, in which quantitative data was gathered from television sources during the period from June 2003 to January 2005. Ninety three stories concerned with same-sex marriage issues from ABC, NBS, and CBS were analyzed, to answer the main questions of th4e research, which are: 1) what sources have the opportunity to speak; 2)what was the length of the sound bite of different source types; 3) how the speaking appearance of LGB couples are compared non LGB appearances; 4) how LGB were visually shown, individuals, couples, or a mass group; 5) what were the activities of LGB population in the news; 6) What was the racial and gender diversity of LGB couples in the focus of each news story, and finally, 7) what was the length of speech of LGB couples compared to non LGB couples. The study found out that LGB rarely were given the opportunity to present their perspectives in the news, although almost always were present as couples. The perspective portrayed in the news was dominated by a heterosexual point of view. Other characteristics include the dominance of white couples, gay rights activists, with activists, supporters and opposes were given more opportunities to speak than LGB couples. The couples were mostly represented visually, as opposed to the voicing opportunities given to other people in the news.

The Diary

I think that the selection of the second article was more successful. I think that more examples might be required in class explaining the connection of resource management to policies. Other than that, the semester is going fine.

Critique

The article was mainly selected for its rich insight into the perceptions of the LGB couples. On the one hand, the article provides an extensive literature review that contributes to the problem statement of the final research. On the other hand, the research questions themselves and the results of the article can contribute to the explaining the way the perceptions of gender structures can change based on media representations. The article can be used to support the argument that the threat to the legal structure of gender in every marriage can be more influenced by way genders are portrayed in the media, rather than the fact of institutionalizing same sex marriage.

The relation of the article to the topics discussed in class can be seen through its parallel to the theoretical foundation in the systems theory and the types of needs that can used to explain the processes in management in general, and resource management in particular. In that regard, the social and information needs outlined in the textbook can be reflected in this article. In what concerns, the systems theory, it can be stated that the perceptions of the community, or information in general, can used as an input in drawing the managerial actions using the systems approach.

The issues raised in the article can be seen important for the issue of LGB rights in general, and in the context of the influence of media in forming images and stereotypes and exploiting them. Additionally, the flow of the study is exemplary, namely in making the rationale for the study and the derived questions flow directly from the gaps in knowledge identified in the literature review. It can be agreed with the author in that the formation of the dominant view in the media is shaped through various details that might form the public opinion, with the absence of neutral position. In the context of gender roles, the visual representation in the media might contribute as one of the source for the fear for those roles to switch in the society.

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage on the Legal Structure of Gender in All Marriages

Introduction

Statement of the Problem and Delineation of the Problem

Statement of the Problem

The topic of institutionalizing same-sex marriage in the United States has long been an issue that was of both controversy and significance at the same time. Then legalizing same sex marriage divided the society into two distinct parties. On the one hand, there are those who advocate the legalization of same sex marriage, using the argument embedded in the Constitution of protecting the rights of every citizen. The there are those of the opposition, who oppose same sex marriage, and propose banning them. Each party has their arguments, which are not solely based on religious views, where among the opposing arguments, there is the fear that institutionalizing same-sex marriage might transform the institution of marriage for heterosexual people, namely in their gender roles. The seriousness of the support standing behind each party can be seen through the legal struggle between banning and legalizing same-sex marriage.

Delineation of the Problem

An example of the latter can be seen in the fact that after San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom issued same-sex marriage licenses to more than 3,000 gay and lesbian couples, and Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriages, 11 states passed ballot initiatives to ban same-sex marriages. The almost equal polarity in the opinions can be seen through the 52% of voters who voted “yes” to Proposition 8, invalidating the legal married rights of some 18,000 same-sex couples in the state, as opposed to the 48% who voted “no”. Despite such almost equal polarity, the portrayal of the debate is mostly dominated by “straight” perspective, as stated in Moscowitz (2010). The impact of the ban is substantial, in terms of population health, where it was found out that living in states where same-sex marriage is banned may have consequences for the mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations.

Aspects of the Problem

  • Aspect 1: The impact of institutional discrimination on psychiatric disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: A prospective study.
  • Aspect2: Gay marriage in television news: Voice and visual representation in the same-sex marriage debate.

Review of Literature

Aspect 1: The impact of institutional discrimination on psychiatric disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: A prospective study

This article investigates the impact of states having policies banning same-sex marriage and the mental health of the LGB population living in those states. The study found that there is a positive correlation between the states having banning policies and the increase in psychiatric disorders defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. No significant increase was found for the heterosexuals living in the same state. The aforementioned fact is specifically important to the present discussion due indicating that heterosexual families were not impacted by the fact whether a state legalized same-sex marriage or not.

Aspect 2: Gay marriage in television news: Voice and visual representation in the same-sex marriage debate

This article investigates the portrayal of LGB in the media during the debates on the question of same sex marriage. Being based on the view of scholars that media shape and regulate the gender roles and identities, the study sought to indicate the source of the representation of LGB population in the media and the way they are visualized. The results of the study supported the role of the media, indicating that the image of LGB population is normalized according to the heterosexual perspective, which is the dominant in the media. Such perspective provided mostly a visual presentation of LGB couples, being given the least time to speak on issues of same sex marriage, as opposed to those representing their views. Among the conclusions of the article is the adherence of the community to the perspective provided by groups other than LGB population, including gay right activists, political figures, conservative activists and others.

Summary and Conclusions

Summary

One of the arguments of the opposition to same-sex marriage is the fear of the changes to the gender structure of in all marriages. Banning same sex marriages through institutionalized discriminatory policies have a negative impact on the LGB population, in terms of psychological health. Such institutionalization has no significant impact on the heterosexual population living in the same states. The disorders associated with living within a state banning same sex marriages can be attributed to many facts, among which stereotypes and misleading portrayals can seen significant. The dominance of the heterosexual perspective in the media was supported in a study of the representation of LGB couples. Although such representation is no longer dominated by stereotypes, the perspective of the LGB population itself is not heard. The latter might lead to the conclusion that the structure of gender is shaped extraneously to the perspective of LGB population.

Synthesis and Conclusions

The fear of changes in the structure of gender in all marriage is not linked with the legal status of same sex marriages. The negative effects of banning marriage are not linked to the gendered roles, rather than to social attitude toward LGB couples. Such social attitudes were shaped before the rise of the legalization movement. According to the systems theory a change in the subsystem would result in a change in the system itself, where the system in this case is the institution of marriage. However, as the neither the legalization nor the ban impacted heterosexual couples, it can be assumed that no changes occurred in gender roles. Accordingly, such notion can be supported through the fact that the changes in the gender roles might be predicted form stereotypes rather than from reality. With more time given to represent LGB couples in the media, marriage started to conform to its traditional definition, implying that the processes and the relationship within the families were not different, or they would have transformed the institution of marriage before. LGB couples is not a new phenomenon, and thus, institutionalizing same-sex marriage will only eliminate the discriminatory negative effects, without changing gender roles in all marriages. The gender structure is more impacted with the way media portrays LGB couples and the sources of information in that matter.

Further Research

The investigation into the role of gender in LGB and heterosexual marriages might require investigation into the perception of LGB on the relationship within families. With both studies cited in the paper relying on quantitative data, the need for qualitative perspective through interviews might provide an insight into the phenomenon, both from the perspective of LGB and heterosexual families.

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage on the Legal Structure of Gender in All Marriages

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage on the Legal Structure of Gender in All Marriages

References

Hatzenbuehler, M. L., McLaughlin, K. A., Keyes, K. M., & Deborah S. Hasin. (2010). The Impact of Institutional Discrimination on Psychiatric Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: A Prospective Study. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 452-459. Web.

Moscowitz, L. M. (2010). Gay Marriage in Television News: Voice and Visual Representation in the Same-Sex Marriage Debate. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(1), 24-39. Web.

Appendices

Appendix A: Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is true about institutional discrimination?
  1. Constrain the opportunities, resources, and well-being of socially disadvantaged groups.
  2. Have a positive impact on individuals.
  3. There is no association between institutional discrimination and public health.
  4. Institutional discrimination does not impact attitudes.
  5. None of the above
  • Answer: a
  1. Which representation dominated the LGB perspective in the media during the same-sex marriage debate?
  1. Spoken content
  2. Visual narration.
  3. Black LGB.
  4. LGB couples.
  5. Single LGB population.
  • Answer: b
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IvyPanda. 2022. "Effect of Same-Sex Marriage on the Legal Structure of Gender in All Marriages." January 6, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/effect-of-same-sex-marriage-on-the-legal-structure-of-gender-in-all-marriages/.

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