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This report discusses and interprets mountain front, foothills and the plains geology of Eldorado springs (Gerdner, 9). It gives a description of the soil formation in the area. The map and tables give detailed data of the area.
What is the guide to engineering soil in a site?
Review of the existing literature
The Eldorado springs mapping of landslide deposit, and specific surficial deposits, field evaluation of engineering characteristics of each unit of map, auger drilling, sampling and laboratory testing were done in connection to the present study to give the technical information (Scott 1965).
Relative strength and soil constituency were measured by the resistance to soil penetration. Data on soil resistance and penetration were then compiled in terms of standard penetration resistance (Lambe 1960).
A hollow cylindrical tool, 2 inches in outside diameter, was driven into the subsoil by 140-pound hammer. The fall of the hammer is 30 inches. The standard penetration resistance was measured by the number of blows of the hammer required to drive the sampling tool 1 foot into the subsoil.
Collection/ Analysis of data
Table showing the relation of bearing strength to standard penetration resistance together with relative density and constituency;
|Standard Penetration resistance of sand and gravel||Less than 4||4-10||10-30||30-50||Over 50|
|Relative density of sand |
|Very loose||Loose||Medium||Dense||Very Dense|
|Standard Penetration resistance of clay and silt||Less than 2||2-4||4-8||8-15||15-30||30-100||Over 100|
|Relative density of clay |
|Very soft||Soft||Medium||Stiff||Very Stiff||Hard||Very hard|
The results of PVC test of geology of engineering map units
|PVC Rating||Category||Swell Index(Pounds per square foot)|
|Less than 2||Non-critical||Less than 1700|
|Greater than 6||Very Critical||Over 4700|
The above table shows the PVC rating category and the swell index as established by Lambe (Lambe 1960)
The dominantly clay shale formation ( Greenhorn limestone, Carlike shale, smoky Hill member of the Niobrara formation, and Pierre shale excluding the Hygiene Sandstone are Member are subdivided and regrouped into 4 engineering and map units (Scott 1965). The four rocks are classified according to litho logy and potential of the rocks to swell when wetted.
The report is detailed as it gives the complete information regarding soil constituency and its relative mass. This is a good guide to engineering soil in this area of Eldorado springs (Lahee 1961).
The condition are unsatisfactory where the impervious rock and the water table is within 7 feet of the surface where the conditions of the rock structure are, such that affluent may emerge as seeps on the surface (Watts 1967).
Compton, RR 1985, Geology in the Field. Web.
Lahee, FH 1961, Field Geology, 6th ed. Web.
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Lambe, TW 1960, The characteristics and identification of expansive soils, Federal Housing Technical Studies Department, New York.
Scott, CR1965, Geological and Biostratigraphic map of the Pierre, U.S Geology Survey, NewYork.
Watts, JD 1967, Geology of the Eldorado Springs quadrangle, Colorado, U. S Geology Survey, New York.