Identification of the Problem discussed in the Article
The article examines the challenges faced by employees with disabilities in the workplace. It focuses on their organizational behaviors, relationships with co-workers, and involvement in work. Individuals with disabilities face many challenges in obtaining and sustaining gainful employment. As such, the participation of people with disabilities in the workplace has become a prevalent concern amongst employers and the public (Hashim & Wok, 2014).
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Due to their disadvantaged physical conditions, they are often unnoticed in the workplace because most employers regard them as unproductive. However, employees with disabilities deserve their rights as any other individuals in society. Some countries such as Malaysia have introduced various legislations, policies, and programs that promote awareness of the disproportionate risks such as poverty posed to individuals with disabilities in the workplace (Hashim & Wok, 2014). Nevertheless, tough employment challenges and regulations still leave limited opportunities in the labor market for the physically disadvantaged individuals.
The hypothesis formulated by the Authors in the Article
The authors in the article formulated five hypotheses. The first hypothesis, H1, seeks to establish the relationship between the employees with disabilities’ organizational behavior and their employer’s consciousness and responsiveness. The authors found that employers perceived that their organizations provided the less privileged employees with the favorable work environment, relaxed workplace culture, and suitable job designs besides treating them with respect and dignity (Hashim & Wok, 2014).
In the second hypothesis, the authors seek to explore the relationship between the employees with disabilities’ organizational behavior and co-worker’s consciousness and responsiveness. Their colleagues asserted that the working areas had been made safe for every person working in the organization. In H3, the authors found that employees with disabilities remained loyal and committed to work and were satisfied with their job.
Their emotional connection with their organizations is high (Hashim & Wok, 2014). H4 reveals that there are positive relationships between less privileged employees’ behavior and their employer’s consciousness and responsiveness, which have boosted their motivation and commitment to work. In the last hypothesis, H5, the authors noted that the organization accommodated various needs of its employees with disabilities by providing suitable organizational climate, work culture, and job designs (Hashim & Wok, 2014).
The Need for the Study in the Article
The need for this study was to predict and analyze employees with disabilities’ organizational behavior and involvement in employment with a view of increasing their chances of getting jobs and providing amicable solutions to their needs. The number of people with disabilities still faces many hindrances to employment. They are often considered to need compassion and relief aid instead of being taken as productive individuals who can contribute to development in society.
As such, they are sometimes compelled to see themselves as undesirable. This research paper examines several organizational aspects that help in the prediction of the behaviors of employees with disabilities and their engagement in job-related activities. In particular, the article focuses on the organizational behavior amongst this group of workers, which has been overlooked or less considered in other studies.
The methodology employed in the Study
The methodology employed in the study involved the administration of self-developed questionnaires, which were useful in the collection of relevant information from people such as employers, employees with disabilities, and their colleagues. This approach was suitable for obtaining rich information on employment challenges and opportunities available for employees with disabilities. The questions included in the questionnaire revolved around job design, organizational culture and climate, reasonable adjustments, and employer’s consciousness and attitude towards the disadvantaged workers.
These employees were asked questions regarding job commitment, motivation, loyalty, satisfaction, and the attitudes of fellow workers towards working with them. A five-point Likert scale was very useful in measuring each of these characteristics. A stratified random sampling procedure that involved the employers, co-workers and employees with disabilities was used to administer the questionnaires. SPSS software that was used for data analysis (correlation and regression analyses) played a great role in generating reliable statistical information that was useful in testing the hypotheses of the study.
Summary of Review of the Literature about the Problem in the Article
A considerably low employment level for people with disabilities has remained a key concern amongst professionals and policymakers for a long time. Those who are lucky to secure jobs have variously faced discrimination from their employers and other employees in the workplace (Hagner, Dague, & Phillips, 2015). Persons with disabilities often experience workplace injustices that are linked to gaps in implementing a selection of occupational abilities.
This situation has significant effects on employers who are not in a position to evaluate organizational performance in the context of employment drawbacks. There is a need to support employees with disabilities to achieve and sustain organizational development. Employers also require backing in the assessment of the performance of people with insistent workplace difficulties. According to Nishii and Susanne (2014), the provision of employment to persons with disabilities has progressively turned into a societal concern of the Malaysian government and its citizens.
Although the country is struggling to institute more suitable legislation, policies, and programs with a view of creating the awareness of the rights to people with employment disadvantages, recent studies have shown that these individuals still have limited access to opportunities and engagement in the labor market. This state of affairs precludes them from contributing to the development of their country (Nishii & Susanne, 2014). Despite an improved determination to rehabilitate, reorient, and employ individuals with disabilities, joblessness is still pervasive amongst those with more serious corporeal challenges (Nishii & Susanne, 2014).
Furthermore, they go through regular procedures for job qualification, which makes them less competitive as likened with their physically fit counterparts. Besides, they are often stereotyped as individuals who need sympathy and relief aid rather than regarding them as productive beings who can bring about a positive change in the economy.
The Study’s Assumptions, Limitations, and Potential for Future Research
Despite the importance of this study in the backing of employment for individuals with disabilities, various assumptions arise. The research assumed that the employer should be able to assess and accept any level of disability by providing them with suitable job designs that fit their conditions. As such, the factor of cost on the part of the employer is ignored in the study. The study fails to suggest pre-occupational therapeutic tests to assess the level of disability amongst persons with employment difficulties (Hyland & Rutigliano, 2013).
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A key limitation to the study was the availability of poor databases by the relevant agency of employees with disabilities in Malaysia, which led to the use of a stratified random selection of participants instead of the purposive sampling procedure. As a result, the team was unable to identify the number of employees with disabilities that employers were willing to offer an opportunity in their organizations.
There is unlimited potential for future research on this topic. Imminent scholars on the topic should link research on the opportunities that are brought about by employing people with disabilities to demographic patterns and fluctuating employee benefits and organizational culture.
Conclusion of the Research Finding
The study in the article delivers valuable information on the key issues facing employees with disabilities in work situations. The understanding of the relationship between their behaviors and the attitudes of their employers and co-workers is an important practice in modern organizations. Persons with employment challenges often face discrimination in the workplace. Data obtained from the study reveals that most organizations in Malaysia have provided employees with disabilities a favorable working climate and reasonable adjustment for them.
Student Team’s Critique on the Article
This study critically analyses the relationship between employees with disabilities’ organizational behavior and engagement in employment. The work challenges of such workers are examined with a view of predicting their relationships with their employees and co-workers (Baumgärtner, Dwertmann, Boehm, & Bruch, 2014). The ambivalence amplification theory is an appropriate framework for assessing the behaviors of persons with employment disadvantages.
The premise of the theory is that individuals possess ambivalent attitudes towards stigmatized groups (Baumgärtner et al., 2014). The application of this conceptual framework in this study reveals that positive actions executed by persons with disability have made the public to deny their negative attitudes towards them. In this sense, the article brings about an understanding that ambivalent attitudes can be manipulated. Therefore, the feelings of employees or workers towards persons with employment challenges can be modified (amplified) to accommodate their weaknesses by providing them with favorable organizational environments and apposite work designs (Baumgärtner et al., 2014).
The hypotheses formulated for the study are testable. H1 brought about the realization that employers perceived that their organizations provided the less privileged employees with a favorable work environment, relaxed workplace culture, and suitable job designs besides handling them with respect and dignity. H2 explores the relationship between the employees with disabilities’ organizational behavior and co-worker’s consciousness and responsiveness. H3 helped in determining that employees with disabilities remained loyal and committed to work and were satisfied with their job. Their emotional connection with their organizations is high (Hyland & Rutigliano, 2013).
H4 revealed that there were positive relationships between less privileged employees’ behavior and their employer’s consciousness and responsiveness, which boosted their motivation and commitment to work. In the last hypothesis, H5, the authors noted that the organization accommodated various needs of its employees with disabilities by providing suitable organizational climate, work culture, and job designs (Hashim & Wok, 2014).
The methodology used in the study is suitable for gathering adequate ad relevant information on employment challenges faced by underprivileged individuals. The sampling procedure allowed for a broad assessment where employers and employees, and persons revealed their views on persons with disabilities (Hyland & Rutigliano, 2013). Data analysis using SPSS software led to a systematic generation of reliable statistical information that was important for exploring problems experienced by people with workplace challenges.
The examination of the organizational behavior of employees with disabilities based on factors such as loyalty, motivation, job satisfaction, and engagement in work provided a powerful framework for understanding different relationships in the workplace (Schur, Nishii, Adya, Kruse, Bruyère, & Blanck, 2014). This underpinning enables employers to deploy suitable job designs for physically challenged employees.
However, this research only concentrates on the relationship between employees with disabilities’ behavior and work involvement. There is a need to conduct further research that will encompass the cost implications of hiring persons with employment challenges (Schur et al., 2014). Besides, the study fails to outline therapeutic procedures that should be used to determine the level of disability that should allow a human resource representative to hire a person with employment challenges (Schur et al., 2014). Thus, further studies should explain procedures that should be followed to determine the degree of disability that should lead disadvantaged persons to employment.
Baumgärtner, M. K., Dwertmann, D. J., Boehm, S. A., & Bruch, H. (2015). Job satisfaction of employees with disabilities: the role of perceived structural flexibility. Human Resource Management, 54(2), 323-343.
Hagner, D., Dague, B., & Phillips, K. (2015). Including Employees with Disabilities in Workplace Cultures: Strategies and Barriers. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 58(4), 195-202.
Hashim, J., & Wok, S. (2014). Predictors to employees with disabilities’ organizational behavior and involvement in employment. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 33(2), 193-209.
Hyland, P. K., & Rutigliano, P. J. (2013). Eradicating discrimination: Identifying and removing workplace barriers for employees with disabilities. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(4), 471-475.
Nishii, L. H., & Susanne, M. (2014). Research brief: Inside the workplace: Case studies of factors influencing engagement of people with disabilities. Web.
Schur, L., Nishii, L., Adya, M., Kruse, D., Bruyère, S. M., & Blanck, P. (2014). Accommodating employees with and without disabilities. Human Resource Management, 53(4), 593-621.