Family is a very important unit of human race. Motherhood and family are two interrelated terms, as through family motherhood is able to fulfill the roles ascribed the society (Teman 2008). In that sense, family is the only continuation of our existence. Without a family, the entire human race is threatened with extinction. Families that cannot have children are at high risk of becoming extinct when the two partners die off. From an evolutionary point of view, motherhood can be seen as a very important unit in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Argument for Surrogate Motherhood specifically for you
807 certified writers online
According to the theory of Natural Selection by Charles Darwin, in an environment where there is a competition for limited resources, only the fittest individuals survive, where individuals with suitable characteristics are selected against those who are not able to adapt. This law has been quite often referred to as survival for the fittest. According to this theory, couples who are unable of bearing children are at risk of becoming extinct in their generation, as they lack the ability to pass their genetic material. Therefore, surrogate motherhood in this case can be of use as a vital process that can facilitate the transfer of genes to another generation.
Accordingly, this process provides the means through which couples that are not able to bear children to compete with other capable couples. In this case, surrogate motherhood can be viewed as a fair and ethical practice that enables such people to make families (Vasanti Jadva et al. 2003). From a genetic point of view, surrogate motherhood is an arrangement that enables the transfer of genes in families that are incapable of doing so. In that sense, Surrogate motherhood is an important process that brings variability in the human race instead of letting genes disappear simply because the inability of the couple to reproduce. Variability in the genetic combination of the child is a very unique phenomenon, in a sense that it can bring about the occurrence of desirable traits which were not present in parents. Such desirable genes are present in the surrogate mother and they can be admired by other parents, where the desirable traits can be different in terms of physical attributes such as height, skin color, IQ and many others (Teman 2008).
In psychology, according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, there comes a time in life when achieving self actualization and satisfaction implies the need for children. The lack of satisfaction of such needs can lead to undesirable behavior. Children in that sense can become an essential factor in achieving self satisfaction in couples. Childless couples have higher risk of separation than those who formed a family with children.
If couples do not consider themselves in a position that allows them to bear children themselves, a surrogate arrangement can be the only way of creating a full family. Accordingly, having children they can achieve the aforementioned satisfaction in their life. Thus, surrogate motherhood becomes a marriage savior for families threatened with separation and divorce because of the inability of one of the partners to bear children. For the purpose of protecting the institution of family and marriage, surrogate motherhood is a very vital human arrangement.
Research studies have continued to indicate that infertility is a common course of disintegration in most marriages. The pressure to bear children can be originated from different angles, as it is quite inevitable to avoid these pressures because we all live in a society that affect our beliefs and values. The society acknowledges that a family without children cannot stand and compete among the others. Based on such acknowledgements and systems of belief, it becomes very difficult for affected couples to find a purpose if they cannot reproduce. Surrogacy therefore, becomes a very essential alternative for such partners to fulfill their marital responsibilities (MacCallum, Fiona et al. 2003).
According to the Holy Bible, Christians believe that it is the will of God for the people to propagate in the world. Therefore, by marrying, forming a family, and giving birth to children people are fulfilling the will of God. For those who are unable of fulfilling this will in a “traditional” way, surrogacy as a mean for parenting is an acceptable way of fulfilling God’s will.
From a Christian perspective, there is no commandment that is disobeyed by engaging in surrogate motherhood, as it does not contradict the teachings of the Bible. Without this alternative the affected people might think that they have been denied the opportunity to bear children and fulfill the will of God, and the dream of some people to have children would be completely shattered (MacCallum, Fiona et al. 2003).
Nevertheless, there are some isolated cases in surrogacy where exploitation manifested itself in both parties. Without proper legal framework, the arrangement of surrogate motherhood can be abused by some people. For instance, surrogate mothers can take advantage of childless couples by exploiting them financially after giving birth to their children. Such incident would not occur when surrogate motherhood is practiced within a proper legal framework.
There were also issues regarding the exploitation of the surrogate mother, where cases of inadequate compensations for conceiving and giving birth after the children were taken from their surrogate mothers (Rae et al 1993).
Additionally, there are also some genetic shortcomings that have been associated with surrogacy. This concerns some undesirable behaviors in children who are products of surrogacy. Some couples can express disappointments especially with traits such as criminal tendencies in children sired by surrogate mothers, where such incidents can be major challenges in the practice of surrogate motherhood.
Despite these isolated incidences, couples that have infertility related problems can still find solace in surrogate motherhood instead of going for other alternatives like polygamy or divorce that are characterized with deceit and lack of true love. As recognition of the fact that infertility is an unfortunate incidence in people’s life, surrogate motherhood should be left as an alternative that will enable these couples to make families. (Teman 2008) Such practice is an alternative that addresses the needs of those who might be disadvantaged in one way or another caused by their inability to bear children. From the stand point of protecting the interests of people who are disadvantaged reproductively, surrogate motherhood should be supported by all who care about the continuity of mankind and the future generations.
- Rae, Scott B. “Brave New Families?: The Ethics of the New Reproductive Technologies.” Christian Research Journal, 1993, pp. 8.
- Teman, Elly. 2008. “The Social Construction of Surrogacy Research: An Anthropological Critique of the Psychosocial Scholarship on Surrogate Motherhood,” Social Science & Medicine. Volume 67, Issue 7, Pages 1104-1112.
- MacCallum, Fiona et al. 2003. Surrogacy: The experience of commissioning couples Human Reproduction, Vol. 18, No. 6, 1334-1342.
- Vasanti Jadva et al. 2003. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers. Human Reproduction, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2196-2204.