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Evolution Development: Introducing New Species Research Paper

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Updated: Mar 24th, 2022

Introduction

General overview

The evolution development provides us with a great variety of variables that can influence the look and behavior of species. In this respect, we can impact the species by knowing variants that can be produced as a result of mutation or hybridization including phenotypes that are results of the genotype implemented into a certain environment. In other words, knowledge about evolution development can be used to introduce other new species with features and characteristics appropriate for a certain setting, especially viewing the climate changes and global warming. As far as a new species is introduced, it is necessary to analyze its perception and features in terms of the phenotype caused by a certain environment, characteristics obtained as a result of the adaptation to certain conditions and neighboring settings and species as well as morphogenesis and potential limitations and deviations that can lead to the development of other mutant species.

Thesis

A new species should have characteristics typical of already existing species so that it could adjust to the climate changes and other changes that take place in the contemporary environment including water and soil pollution, contamination of air, the shift of natural environments of other species that occurs due to deforestation and other actions aimed at technological and industrial development.

Aim and scope

The research aims to introduce a new species that will be adjusted to the changes in the natural environment. The collection of relevant information gave the basis for the introduction of the organism about the evolutionary development and analysis of the characteristics typical of already existing species. Ten scholarly articles were used as the background for the research.

Background

Historical basis

The historical basis for the introduction of a new organism is the analysis of literary sources written by reputable scholars. The main features of a new organism include the ones typical of crocodiles, threespine sticklebacks, snakes, cavefish, and wolves. In this respect, it is necessary to discuss the features that will be combined in a single organism. The first feature to be discussed includes the ability of crocodilians to shunt the blood flow right-to-left to facilitate the digestion of the food hence making crocodilians one of the most powerful and dangerous predators and excluding all potential competitors that may occur in the natural environment. As reported by Farmer et al., “The mechanism remains to be demonstrated, but the shunt probably serves to carry CO2 to the gastrointestinal tract, where it is then used in the formation of gastric acid” (133).

The second feature that will be used to introduce a new organism will be borrowed from snakes that have rudimentary limbs and axial patterning which facilitates their moves and improves the dynamics and speed of movement. The researches on the limblessness of snakes were conducted by Cohn and Tickle whereas the venom and other features of the development of snakes were explored by Chipman. The next characteristic of a new organism concerns the pelvic reduction that will enable the representatives of new species to be dynamic in water as well as on the ground. This feature will be applied from three spine sticklebacks based on the research conducted by Shapiro et al. Besides, the necessity of legs and arms was reported by Leroi (“Clippies”).

The next feature of a new organism concerns the pigmentation of representatives of species in different stages of its development and differences in terms of gender and other variables that may influence the pigmentation of a species. The information for this characteristic will combine peculiarities of pigmentation by grey wolves (Anderson) and cavefish (Borowsky; Protas et al.). The differences in pigmentation of small animal units and adults, males and females will help to differentiate between those and trace the changes such as phenotype that can be presented by pigmentation.

Analysis of possibilities and limitations

Human embryos have a specific nature as well as embryos of all other species including crocodilians and fish. As reported by Leroi (“A Perfect Join”), embryos play a crucial role in the development of an organism (25-27). In this respect, it is necessary to take into account the development of a new organism at a stage of an embryo to predict various deviations and mutations that may potentially occur.

Results and Analysis

Traits

Every trait of the new organism will contribute greatly to its adjustment to the natural environment and overall attractiveness of the organism in terms of the ability to breed, the ability of the embryos to survive, and other factors that usually lead to the extinction of species, especially viewing the climate change and other shifts that currently take place.

A right-to-left shunt that serves digestion

The feature borrowed from crocodilians is sure to contribute to the overall power of the organism. Besides, as the organism will possess the power to digest similar to one of the crocodilians, it will become more adjusted to the environment being a powerful predator with an ability to live in water and on the ground. As reported by Farmer et al., this reaction of the organism can be used to synthesize fats hence facilitating the overall reaction of the organism to food and digestion. When a representative of this new species will digest food, it will shunt the blood flow so that it did not pass through the lungs. In other words, this also gives some limitations to the organism because it will become less emotional in the process of digestion. However, this is a beneficial feature that will be used in a new organism to ensure it has a normal digestion process.

Pigmentation: light and dark

Pigmentation can be considered one of the most important features of the new organism because it enables researchers to differentiate between small animal units ad adults making the process of selection simpler and less time-consuming. Besides, the pigmentation differences can also concern gender differentiation. One of the features related to pigmentation can be borrowed from grey wolves of the North American continent that are reported to be darker in forest and lighter in tundra (Anderson 1339) which is the result of their habits and behavior. In this respect, the representatives of new species that will inhabit the banks of the rivers and lakes including the inhabitation in the water of those water resources may potentially have a lighter color than those that will inhabit caves and water resources covered from the sunlight. The animal units that will inhabit caves and the area of water resources within caves will have lighter pigmentation obtained from cavefish (Borowsky; Protas).

Limblessness and venom

The limblessness of the new organism will be borrowed from snakes that are reported to have their limbs in the form of rudiments hidden in their skeleton which has axial patterning (Cohn and Tickle). As they have limbs though hidden and rudimentary, this can be considered an explanation of their speedy motion and an ability to move fast in different settings including sand, rocks, and water. Besides, they can live in the settings suggested by their pigmentation peculiarities mentioned above. Moreover, another characteristic that can be borrowed from snakes includes venom that makes them an even more powerful predator (Chipman). The venom helps a snake in hunting and digestion of food that can be much larger than the snake itself. The digestion of a crocodilian combined with the use of venom by snakes contributes greatly to the overall image of a new organism.

Pelvic reduction

The features borrowed from three spine sticklebacks include evolutionary pelvic reduction reported by Shapiro et al. that enables these fish to move quickly with the help of their fins. Moreover, different variations of fins or substituting rudiments can be introduced into a new organism to make the animal unit more mobile and active to ensure that it is faster than its competitors in the natural environment and females as well as males will be able to protect new generations due to their quick reaction. As the limbs are transformed into fins, these fish can swim fast. In other words, the reaction of the new organism will be its most prominent feature because it will be able to move quickly regardless of the environment.

Morphogenesis (from an embryo to an adult)

The new organism will look like an embryo of a fish or a snake due to a lack of limbs. The pigmentation of an embryo will be similar for organisms that inhabit water resources, caves, and forests. In this respect, this can be considered a possible limitation for the new generation as light pigmentation can be beneficial for water where embryos may become invisible due to their substance whereas it is not beneficial for forests where the species will have to be covered with dark setting contrasting to their pigmentation. The adults will have various pigmentation types due to the natural environment and their gender. In other words, males will be larger with some distinctive features such as stripes or bright spots on their heads. On the contrary, male representatives will be of the same color regardless of the part of their body to ensure that they can protect their babies.

Adaptation to the environment (phenotypes)

The adaptation to the environment can be considered one of the most prominent features of a new organism after its reaction. In this respect, the representatives of the species that will inhabit the caves will obtain lighter pigmentation and lower the temperature of the body similar to cold-blooded creatures such as snakes. In this respect, the representatives of the species that inhabit forest areas near water resources can be darker and have higher temperatures though they should be able to adapt to the conditions that combine water and ground being more similar to crocodilians. Another type can inhabit water resources such as rivers and lakes being able to adjust to the conditions typical more of fish.

Conclusion

Summary

The evolution development can be considered one of the greatest mysteries of the world. In this respect, researchers from all over the globe try to explore the secrets of nature by experimenting with species and their basic characteristics. A new organism can be introduced to adjust to the different conditions as well as other species. Besides, the phenotypes of the species can provide its representatives with more characteristics appropriate for various settings and behaviors. The new organism will combine features typical of snakes, fishes, and crocodilians with peculiarities of pigmentation obtained from grey wolves of the North American continent. Every feature will contribute greatly t the overall image of anew animal unit being a good addition to already existing features. Crocodilians with their digestion and right-to-left shunting, snakes with their venoms and rudimentary limbs, as well as fish with transformed fins and pigmentation of wolves can be combined so that a new animal unit could have a good reaction and several settings for life.

Recommendations and limitations

The new animal unit can have a better reaction though the embryos can be left without a female similar to fish when spawn takes place in the water leading to the irrelevance of the nests and protection received from the parents. On the contrary, the embryos can be of a bright color leading to the crucial importance of protection of those during the period of their development. Other variations can be obtained due to differences in the setting of the animal units such as venom typical of those representatives that do not live in the water or vice versa. Besides, changes in pigmentation can take place in the organism when it is strong enough to protect itself making difference between the males and female

References

Anderson, Tovi M. “Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves.” Science 323 (2009), 1339-1343. Print.

Borowsky, Richard. “Restoring Sight in Blind Cavefish.” Current Biology 18.1 (2008), 23-24. Print.

Chipman, Ariel D. “On Making a Snake.” Evolution & Development 11.1 (2009), 3-5. Print.

Cohn, Martin J., and Cheryll Tickle. “Developmental Basis of Limblessness and Axial Patterning in Snakes.” Nature 399 (1999), 474-479. Print.

Davis, Marcus C., Randall D. Dahn, and Neil H. Shubin. “An Autopodial-Like Pattern of Hox Expression in the Fins of a Basal Actinopterygian Fish.” Nature 447 (2007): 473-477. Print.

Farmer, Cindy G., et al. “The Right-to-Left Shunt of Crocodilians Serves Digestion.” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81.2 (2008): 125–137. Print.

Leroi, Armand Marie. “A Perfect Join (On Embryos).” Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body. New York: Viking, 2003. 23-62. Print.

Leroi, Armand Marie. “Cleppies (On Arms and Legs).” Mutants: On Genetic Variety and the Human Body. New York: Viking, 2003. 105-133. Print.

Protas, Meredith E., et al. “Genetic Analysis of Cavefish Reveals Molecular Convergence in the Evolution of Albinism.” Nature Genetics 38.1 (2006), 107-111. Print.

Shapiro, Michael D., et al. “Genetic and Developmental Basis of Evolutionary Pelvic Reduction in Threespine Sticklebacks.” Nature 428 (2004), 717-723. Print.

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