Family Resource Management
Twenty Years of Work and Family at International Business Machines Corporation
In this article, Hill, Jackson, and Martinengo (2006) focus on changes in IBM’s work and life experiences within a period of twenty years. The authors provide readers with information on how IBM has strived to develop workplace policies that currently make it the leading corporate work and life entity in the world. The article is significant to the topic of family resource management. The reason is that different organizations today develop various programs to attract, motivate, and retain highly qualified employees (Hill et al., 2006).
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Review and critique
Using Andrea Henderson’s case, Hill et al. (2006) show the need for IBM to develop flexible corporate work and family programs, which are beneficial to both the employees and the organization.
Henderson graduated as one of the top students in the engineering class at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976 (Hill et al., 2006). She achieved high levels of success in her employment by IBM. However, after giving birth to her first child, she was unable to balance her career with parenthood. As a result, she was forced to resign.
After Andrea’s case, Hill et al. (2006) provide a flow of how the employee programs transitioned by the use of critical survey studies. All programs developed since 1985 are clearly explained to show IBM’s efforts in developing a work environment that enables employees to succeed in the office and at home.
The article provides a comprehensive analysis of change in programs within a period of twenty years. Hill et al. (2006) highlight the importance and benefits of flexible work and family programs. They do this by giving a story of IBM’s working couple, Karen Ferns and Ed. In spite of the two having a newborn baby, they managed to maintain their performance at work and still take care of the child due to the current work programs.
Family Ties: Constructing Family Time in Low-Income Families
In this article, Tubbs, Roy, and Burton (2005) focus on the importance of family time. Tubbs et al. (2005) stress the need to build and strength kin relationships. In spite of the importance of these ties, not all household members manage to create time for each other (Tubbs et al., 2005). The subject area of this article is significant to this topic. The reason behind this is because a family is a primary institution for children and their socialization.
Review and critique
The creation of family time is hindered by various unique cultural factors, such as poverty (Tubbs et al., 2005). In this article, the authors focus on low-income mothers. They discuss ways through which these individuals create time and give meaning to focused commitment and bond development. To educate readers on the different strategies employed by these persons, Tubbs et al. (2005) use longitudinal ethnographic data from 61 low-earning European, American, African, and Latin American mothers.
The different strategies identified are beneficial as they help to shape family time (Tubbs et al., 2005). In addition, they help readers understand that poverty should not be used as an excuse for failure to create time. People from low-income brackets can search for inexpensive activities, which create a good interactive atmosphere. It helps them connect with their children (Tubbs et al., 2005).
The article provides comprehensive information on family time and its importance. Through research, Tubbs et al. (2005) present interesting findings on the topic. However, more analysis could have been carried out to help readers understand the different strategies used to create time.
In spite of the fact that the main focus is on low-income mothers, Tubbs et al. (2005) could have compared their methods with those of wealthy and stable family women. Through this, a clear picture of the difference and similarities of their strategies would have been brought out.
Conceptualizing Work-Family Balance: Implications for Practice and Research
Grzywacz and Carlson (2007) analyze the inability of organizations to manage work-family balance effectively. The problem is defined as the attainment of task-allied anticipations. The expectations are discussed and shared between individuals and their partners both at work and within the family environment (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007). The topic is relevant to family issues. The reason is that family-work balance is a major source of controversies in the applied, academic, and public press domain.
Review and critique
Grzywacz and Carlson (2007) primarily focus on work-balance. The aim is to help readers understand the concept and the implications of applying it effectively in the management practice. In addition, they point out the benefits associated with maintaining this balance. Indicators of equilibrium are linked with improved employee commitment, organizational behavior, and job satisfaction (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007). On the other hand, lack of balance results in poor performance in the workplace and at home.
To make their discussion more comprehensive, Grzywacz and Carlos (2007) compare various definitions from different authors in diverse fields. Apart from defining the constraint, the authors also discuss their recommendations and barriers to work-family balance. In addition, they mention the aspects that facilitate improved equilibrium.
Work-family balance is important to all employees (Grzywacz & Carlson, 2007). As a result, the article is educative and rich in knowledge. Extensive research has been carried out. However, Grzywacz and Carlson (2007) fail to elaborate on a number of issues fully. For example, the authors do not provide in-depth information on factors that improve work-family balance.
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In addition, little is discussed on the barriers associated with the feature. The application of the four components of balance was not extensively addressed. More information on these aspects would help readers gain a better understanding of the subject.
Parent Education and Guidance
Low-income Parents’ Perceptions of Pediatrician Advice on Early Childhood Education
In this research article, Brown, Girio-Herrera, Sherman, Kahn, and Copeland (2013) evaluate low-income parents’ experiences and attitudes towards pediatrician’s advice on ECE. The American Academy of Pediatricians encourages children experts to promote ECE (Brown et al., 2013). However, some parents are against the idea of anticipatory guidance. Brown et al. (2013) carried out the research to enlighten readers on what influenced these acts on the part of the guardians.
Review and critique
Brown et al. (2013) clearly discuss the research methodology and the number of participants used. The study involved 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of children aged between 3 and 4years (Brown et al., 2013).
In addition, the methods used to recruit participants are well explained. In spite of attaining the desired results, the gender ratio of the participants was not appropriate. The information gathered was based on views of parents drawn mostly from one gender. Out of the 27 participants, 26 were females and one a male. A look at the ratio distribution reveals that the research involves low-income mothers.
The article provides important information on parents’ attitudes towards pediatricians. However, Brown et al. (2013) fail to provide information on how guardians and medical experts can develop good relations and reduce resistance. The setting within which participants were recruited was not appropriate (Brown et al., 2013).
In spite of the fact that Brown et al. (2013) acknowledge this limitation, they still carried out the research. In addition, the interviewees were pediatricians. The aspect could have greatly influenced the participants’ reports. Some of the guardians could have opted to withhold important information as to why they were against the pediatrician’s advice on EDE.
Parent Monitoring and Child Anticipatory Guidance with Latino and African American Families
Farber (2009) addresses the factors that result in poor health and development outcomes among children. The author aims to highlight the major causes of the problem and the appropriate remedies. In addition, Farber discusses the effects of family environment and poor child-rearing choices by parents during the early developmental stages. The article is highly significant. The reason behind this is because a majority of children from low-income backgrounds suffer from poor health and developmental outcomes (Farber, 2009).
Review and critique
To address the problems affecting children, the author has clearly stated the preventive parent mentoring project conducted by a team of individuals from social work, nursing, and education domain. The method identified to improve child anticipatory guidance and help meet family needs work effectively if well implemented (Farber, 2009). As a result of this, readers of this article can understand the manner in which the entire project was carried and how the findings were gathered.
Farber (2009) clearly points out the four major factors affecting infant development. The core elements include parent guidance, social, environmental resources, caregiving, and well-baby care (Farber, 2009). Each aspect is well explained and in a simple approach. In addition, information from various research studies has been used to identify specific intervention measures for each conceptual domain.
Farber’s article provides a conclusive review of the factors affecting infant development. The author clearly addresses the benefits of parental mentoring and the repercussions of collaborative multidisciplinary practice.
The point on the importance of early childhood has been highly stressed. Early childhood entails a comparatively short period of human development (Farber, 2009). However, it is one of the most important stages of growth. By use of this article, parents and guardians can acquire very important information parenthood and factors affecting children.
Maternal Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Discipline: The Effectiveness of a Hands-on Education Program in Positive Guidance
Saunders, McFarland-Piazza, Jacobvitz, Hazen-Swann, and Burton (2012) focus on finding the most appropriate means of helping parents apply positive guidance techniques of disciplining children. To determine the best method, two approaches were used. They include lecture-based only parenting and lecture-based, plus hands-on parent training series (Saunders et al., 2013). Children’s behaviors need to monitor and controlled. As a result, the article provides very important information on discipline.
Review and critique
A majority of parents consider physical punishment as the most appropriate method of disciplining children. However, Saunders et al., through the use of information from a wide range of research studies, manage to bring out a different perspective.
Numerous researches reveal that physical scolding has great limitations (Saunders et al., 2013). The reason behind this is because it tends to have long-term effects on children. The article clearly states some of the outcomes related to the mode of correction. They include strained relationships with caregivers and peers, being aggressive, depressed.
Saunders et al. (2013) also point out the disadvantages of permissive parenting. The technique can make children engage in substance abuse, school misconduct, and experience phases of decreased emotion regulation (Saunders et al., 2013). To show the effectiveness of the identified techniques, the article clearly explains the studies conducted, and all the results gathered.
Saunders et al. (2013) provide a wide range of knowledge that if well applied, can be beneficial to parents and guardians. The aspect of positive guidance has been comprehensively discussed. In addition, all the reasons as to why it should be used have been explained. Positive guidance is often considered as permissive (Saunders et al., 2013). However, the article reveals that it is one of the most appropriate techniques. The article also explains how parents can learn to employ different behavior monitoring strategies effectively.
Family Law and Public Policy
Barriers to Family-Centered Services for Infants and Toddlers with Developmental Delays
In the article, Shannon (2004) addresses the issue of family-centered practice. The author aims to enlighten readers on the barriers related to the subject of concern. To gather the required information, Shannon explains the study carried out involving 22 family participants and 20 service providers. Many families globally are faced with the problem of having children with growth setbacks (Shannon, 2004). The challenge makes the article very beneficial literature to parents faced with the problem.
Review and critique
The concept of family-centered practice is associated with social work (Shannon, 2004). The reason behind this is because social workers continue to take part in early intervention services for parents with children suffering from developmental delays.
In the article, the author clearly clarifies how the entire concept of the family-centered ideology was adopted. In addition, a description of the core concepts of the feature has been explained. However, very little information has been provided on the strategies involved in the family-centered approach.
The implementation of early intervention services is hindered by a wide range of factors. A number of families have reported that professionals do not respect their opinions during the intervention process (Shannon, 2004).
Shannon, in his article, does not mention the measures which can be taken to deal with such claims. The author has discussed the study method used in the research process. The different groups of participants involved in the groups have been mentioned. However, the volunteer recruitment process used has not been described.
The article focuses on a major problem affecting most families globally. To develop a better understanding of the family-centered practice, the author has provided information from various scholars on the subject. The approach, if well understood, can help the affected cope with the problem of developmental delay (Shannon, 2004). The author should have provided more information on the topic. The reason behind this is so as to help readers develop a better understanding.
Uplifting the Family: African American Parents’ Ideas of How to Integrate Religion into Family Health Programming
Religion is considered to be a strong cultural-historical and protective feature among African Americans (McBride, 2013). In the article, McBride (2013) develops ways of integrating religion into the family health program. To this end, the author held seven focus group discussions with African American parents and guardians. The article is significant in helping understand religion and spirituality. The two are constructs that lie at the center of protective aspects, prevention, and culture.
Review and critique
African American youth are often at the highest risk of suffering from mental, physical, and emotional disorders (McBride, 2013). They are also reported to be more delinquent. The article has clearly mentioned the factors which influence these outcomes among black families. In addition, the author has discussed the importance of using religion to shape youth behavior. Despite a person’s culture, religion acts as a protective feature against depression, drug abuse, sexual activity, and delinquency.
The primary purpose of Dominica’s article was to answer the question of how the Family Health Program (FHP) for African Americans can integrate spirituality. Through extensive research, the article has provided detailed information on ways to incorporate the two aspects. The Black church acts as a perfect place for youth mental health programming (McBride, 2013).
Initially, very little research had been conducted on religious-based intervention programs for the youth. However, through this article and others similar to it, more studies can now be carrying to facilitate a better understanding of the approach.
Dominica’s article is very important literature. The reason behind this is because it has comprehensive information on the link between religion and behavior. Parents and guardians from different creeds can apply the knowledge to help shape their children’s behavior and the entire young generation.
Revisiting “The Politics of Fatherhood”: Administrative Agencies, Family Life, and Public Policy
In the article, Beld (2003) focuses on the effect of family life on policy development and administration. Jo Michelle’s topic is influenced by his critique of Professor Stephen Baskerville’s views in The Politics of Fatherhood. Michelle argues that Baskerville literature is not supported by real facts. His information is based on assumptions, innuendo, lurid anecdote, and assumptions.
Review and critique
Through his experience in politics and public policy, Michelle provides information on the substance of child support policies. In addition, he evaluates the dynamics of the state and organizations responsible for managing the guiding principles. The author differs greatly with two of Professor Baskerville’s claims on the subject of child policies. One of the professor’s argument is that child support organization such as the family courts play a role in detaching children from their fathers (Beld, 2003).
In the article, Jo Michelle clearly points out his reasons for refuting with the statements. The author goes ahead and supports his view with relevant and useful information acquired during his working experience in the Child Support Enforcement Division. The article also provides a precise evaluation of state child support guidelines. The analysis is primarily based on the characteristics of separated spouses (Beld, 2003).
Beld’s article is educative literature. Through his counter-arguments, the author manages to elaborate more on the subject of child support lines. He provides extensive knowledge of the highly debated question of whether child support policies are as high as possible.
Jo Michelle explains two components that can be analyzed to help answer the question. One of the aspects is the adaptation of economic study on the events which influenced parents’ separation (Beld, 2003). From the components, Jo concludes the guidelines are not as high as possible.
Substance Area Name: Ethics
What are the Limits of Bioethics in a Culturally Pluralistic Society?
In the article, Bowman (2004) evaluates the capability of Western bioethics to adjust to the realities of escalating ethnically pluralistic societies, such as North America. Modern bioethics has developed within a composite and extremely distinctive culture, which portrays a clear difference between church and state (Bowman, 2004).
Due to this change, the article gains much significance. The reason behind this is because it explores the effect of evolution. To study the entire concept of Western bioethics and culturally pluralistic societies, Bowman examines the socio-cultural pedigree of bioethics.
Review and critique
To provide a better understanding of Bioethics, the article has precisely touched on the aspect’s social, cultural development. Bioethics is directly linked to Western medicine (Bowman, 2004). As a result of this, it is tied to science and technology. In addition, it has no connections with economics, politics, and mortality. The argument has been clearly pointed out. However, the author has not provided much information in this article to support his claim.
Bowman (2004) has done a thorough analysis to help readers comprehend the interface of bioethics with a cultural discrepancy. He examines the aspect by studying three theoretical frameworks of highest significance to bioethics. The three principles are a cultural context, locus of control, and explanatory model of illness.
The article contains very important information on bioethics. As a result, it can be very beneficial to scholars interested in the subject area. The author has addressed the key aspects and theories applied by bioethics. The feature uses its theory, knowledge, and methods to deal with problems and situations considered to be ethically complex in the culture. In addition, the article has precisely explained the aspects involved in bioethical analyses.
The Essence of Innocence: Consequences of Dehumanizing Black Children
Children are considered to be people with distinct attributes. For example, they possess unique traits, such as innocence (Goff et al., 2014). The authors explore the issue of whether Black male children receive equal protection as their peers of the White race. To develop their findings, their authors examined three hypotheses.
The expected outcome was that Black boys were considered to be more responsible for their deeds. In addition, they were targeted more by the police compared to white children. In certain societal contexts, children of African American Origin suffer from harsh treatments similar to adults (Goff et al., 2014). The problem makes the article an important source of literature.
Review and critique
Families, culture, and laws strive to protect all children from harsh unequal treatments (Goff et al., 2014). However, this article provides information which raises numerous questions about the aspects of roles. The authors reveal one group of children is considered to be less innocent. As a result, they suffer from racial disparities.
The findings in the article are well explained and supported by conclusive research studies. For example, children from the African American community are 18 times more likely than the Whites to be sent to adult correctional centers (Goff et al., 2014). The article’s information shows black children are never protected as required. As a result, they face dehumanization.
The article provides a very rich knowledge of how children from different races do not enjoy similar basic human protection rights. The article can be of great importance to people involved in fighting for children’s rights and an end to discrimination. Despite the broad scope of knowledge, the articles fail to provide measures on how to stop dehumanization towards black children.
Ethics and the Professional Practice of Psychologists: The Role of Virtues and Principles
The article by Jordan and Meara (1990) explores the probable application of virtue ethics in the education and practice of professional psychologists. In addition, the authors make a comparison between principle and virtue ethics.
Generally, principles influence the choices made when answering questions of a specific nature (Jordan & Meara, 1990). The article is very significant. The reason behind this is because of the teaching and practice of morals in certified psychology majors in the relevance of ethical codes in circumstances where people are faced with dilemmas.
Review and critique
In the article, the Augustus and Naomi have conclusively elaborated on the impact of both virtue and principle approaches. Their discussion was based on two major factors. They include informed consent and a therapeutic construct (Jordan & Meara, 1990). The article has expounded more on the relatively narrow yet popular psychological literature involving the purpose of ethical analysis.
In their discussion on the differences between virtue and principle ethics, the authors compare information from different scholars in the field of psychology. Such academicians include Callahan. Callahan emphasized the notion of clarifying important facts and principles (Jordan & Meara, 1990). The process brings out the relevance of competing values and ideologies. The article also touches on an important segment. The authors explore the limitations of ethical principles and dilemmas.
Defining professional merits in a psychologically pertinent way has been a subject of great debate. However, through this article, readers can gain a better understanding of virtue and principles. The literature provides vital knowledge on how people can apply virtue ethics in psychology. In addition, the authors have clearly explored the history of moral discourse. The historical perception provides important knowledge on the three core aspects of merits.
Family Life Education Methodology
Professionalization of Family Life Education: Defining the Field
In this article, Darling, Fleming, Cassidy (2009) provide information on family education activists. The activists stress the importance of adopting proactive strategies to enhance the wellbeing of families. In their article Darling et al. (2009) examine the procedure employed to establish the primary experience needed for entry-level family life educators.
The core competencies are often used to develop new Certified Family Life Educators (CFLE) examinations (Darling et al., 2009). In addition, the authors wanted to get familiar with the practice and environmental traits, both qualified and non-certified CFLs. Through studying the characteristics, Carol et al., bring out a comparison between the capabilities of CFLEs at different levels.
Review and critique
In conducting their study, Darling et al. (2009) relied on data gathered from the National Council of Family Relations (NCFR) CFLE professional practice-analysis project. The findings of the entire research study were acquired from 522 CFLEs (Darling et al., 2009). Various study articles fail to mention the procedure applied to recruit participants. In this article, the authors have precisely described the process used to get respondents for the research.
The article provides well detailed and simplified information on the methods used for the research. In addition, all the procedures, measures, and results are well explained. As a result, the interested reader can easily go through the detail and analyze the tables to establish any probable flaws in data interpretation.
CFLs are found in a wide range of settings and engage in various practices (Darling et al., 2009). The article authors, through their study, provide readers with important archived knowledge on the profession of Family Life Education. More information on both certified non-certified CFLEs backgrounds and work environment has been revealed. In addition, the article provides readers with imperative information on the steps applied to facilitate the advancement of the CFLE program.
Family Life Education: An Introduction
Family life education is a very important feature in society (Radina & Downs, 2002). Radina and Downs acknowledge the relevance of Powell and Cassidy’s literature on the family nursing field. As a result, they encourage readers interested in learning more about family, theory, research, and practice to acquire the book Family Life Education: An Introduction by Powell and Cassidy.
Review and critique
To capture the reader’s attention, Radina and Downs (2002) first point out the textbook author’s primary goals. The two hail praise on the literature authors and the reason why it is important for scholars to acquire the book. Having taught a course entailing training undergraduate students to be professional family life educators, Powell and Cassidy’s work is enriching (Radina & Downs, 2002). In addition, the two reviewers consider the book to be the one solution to the scarcity of suitable literature in the field.
Radina and Downs (2002) point out to the readers the main concepts covered by Powell and Cassidy. The book primarily focuses on the notion of the interplay between suppositions and their application in program development and implementation (Radina & Downs, 2002). In addition, the two reviewers state to the readers the total number of chapters that make up the entire book. Generally, some scholars are very keen on book volumes. The reason behind this is so as to determine the time required to go through the entire literature.
Radina and Downs’s (2002) review of the book by Powell and Cassidy is well detailed and informative. The two reviewers provide important summarized information on what each chapter contains. Through this, they make it easier for interested readers to find the content they need. In spite of the fact that the literature by Radina and Downs (2002) is highly beneficial, the two fail to point out the weaknesses of the textbook.
Vision With Action: Developing Sensitivity to Societal Concerns in Gifted Youth
A vision needs action to be turned into reality (Terry, Bohnenberger, Renzulli, Cramond & Sisk, 2008). Terry et al. (2008) show the relevance of sensitizing gifted children about the world’s challenges in their formative years. In addition, they encourage adults to train the youth on how to use their gifts in socially productive ways.
The authors emphasize the use of talents and creativity for the common good. To evaluate how the gifts can be used to help others, the authors focus on one question. The reasons as to why various people, such as Nelson Mandela, mobilize their lives in ways that place human problems are the most important aspect.
Review and critique
Terry et al. (2008) reveal that there have been no accurate explanations to justify why some gifted people devote themselves to helping others. All the broad research studies only bring about speculations. As a result of this, the article focuses on understanding the factors which influence the development of positive human attributes. When people are familiar with how the gifts develop, they can help the youth to focus on bettering the future (Terry et al., 2008).
In addition, the article stresses the need for educating the youth on ways of examining their individual capabilities and interests. The gifted young people tend to be extremely sensitive and anxious about activities beyond their power (Terry et al., 2008). The article provides well-defined information on how to help such youths.
The article by Terry et al. (2008) is highly educative on the subject of gifts and human concerns. The text can be of great importance to people interested in gaining an in-depth understanding of how gifts are developed.
Beld, J. (2003). Revisiting “the politics of fatherhood”: Administrative agencies, family life, and public policy. Political Science & Politics, 36(4), 713-718.
Bowman, K. (2004). What are the limits of bioethics in a culturally pluralistic society?. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32(4), 664-669.
Brown, C., Girio-Herrera, E., Sherman, S., Kahn, R., & Copeland, K. (2013). Low-income parents’ perceptions of pediatrician advice on early childhood education. Journal of Community Health, 38(1), 195-204.
Darling, C., Fleming, W., & Cassidy, D. (2009). Professionalization of family life education: Defining the field. Family Relations, 58(3), 330-345.
Farber, M. (2009). Parent mentoring and child anticipatory guidance with Latino and African American families. Health & Social Work, 34(3), 179-189.
Goff, P., Jackson, M., DiLeone, B., Lewis, A., Culotta, C., & DiTomasso, N. (2014). The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing black children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(4), 526-545.
Grzywacz, J., & Carlson, D. (2007). Conceptualizing work-family balance: Implications for practice and research. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(4), 455-471.
Hill, E., Jackson, A., & Martinengo, G. (2006). Twenty years of work and family at International Business Machines Corporation. The American Behavioral Scientist, 49(9), 1165-1183.
Jordan, A., & Meara, N. (1990). Ethics and the professional practice of psychologists: The role of virtues and principles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21(2), 107-114.
McBride, D. (2013). Uplifting the family: African-American parents’ ideas of how to integrate religion into family health programming. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(1), 161-173.
Radina, M., & Downs, K. (2002). Family life education: An introduction. Family Relations, 51(3), 285-286.
Saunders, R., McFarland-Piazza, L., Jacobvitz, D., Hazen-Swann, N., & Burton, R. (2013). Maternal knowledge and behaviors regarding discipline: The effectiveness of a hands-on education program in positive guidance. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(3), 322-334.
Shannon, P. (2004). Barriers to family-centered services for infants and toddlers with developmental delays. Social Work, 49(2), 301-308.
Terry, A., Bohnenberger, J., Renzulli, J., Cramond, B., & Sisk, D. (2008). Vision with action: Developing sensitivity to societal concerns in gifted youth. Roeper Review, 30(1), 61-67.
Tubbs, C., Roy, K., & Burton, L. (2005). Family ties: Constructing family time in low-income families. Family Process, 44(1), 77-91.