Home > Free Essays > History > United States > Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences

Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences Annotated Bibliography

Exclusively available on IvyPanda Available only on IvyPanda
Updated: Jan 10th, 2022

Introduction

The Philippines society considers their cultural values important; these values were emphasized because of the relationship they created among the Philippines. In this society, the poor were relied upon by the rich to support them. During World War II, the Philippines had a different experience as immigrants. In the period between 1900 and 1941, American influence on the island was very strong. During this period many young people migrated to the United States to study or work with promises of a better land devoid of any social classes and land of equal opportunities for all. Carlos Bulosan was one such immigrant into America to look for a better life. In addition to students and other professionals like teachers moving to the USA were the professional nurses who experienced unique problems from other immigrants as The Empire of Care describes. These were encouraged to pursue their careers abroad first through an exchange program, then as occupational immigrants who later graduated to permanent residency in The US. The unique problem of the nurses as Choy says began with the “culture of empire” which was based on the notions of racial hierarchy, healing and professionalism, gender and domesticity and the generosity of the Americans. This led to mass migration of nurses into this country and elsewhere in the world. They still remain a big part of medical establishments in the United States. In the America is in the Heart, by Bulosan we see the experiences and challenges the Filipino immigrant faced ranging from exploitation, racism and temptations such as alcoholism, women, gambling to crime. These destroy many of them but others raise above all to work in changing their conditions through organizing labor unions, education and advocacy of their rights as citizens. All these experiences, challenges and accomplishments discussions are in the following works.

Comparison of experiences

To get an insight into the experience of the Filipinos in the hands of foreigners who occupied their land in the late nineteenth century and during the early twentieth century, a look at the book America is in the heart by Carols Bulosan is very helpful. In this autobiographical novel, Bulosan outlines the experiences of Filipinos who come to America in search of freedom, equality, social justice and chances of bettering their lives and those of their families at home. During his first years year, he realizes that things are not the way he had anticipated. He and his fellow Filipinos had to contend with exploitation in the Sakadas in Hawaii, Fruit and vegetable farms in California and most everywhere in America. There was also racism and other social evils tempting the immigrants such as alcohol, women, gambling and crime. Bulosan says that he “feels like a criminal running away from crime that I did not commit. And the crime is that I am a Filipino in America.” (67). Bulosan and his compatriots however emerge from their despair and organize and work together to change their lives. They form unions, promote education and advocate for the rights their rights as American citizens. Finally Bulosan is able to overcome his bitterness and inspire others by famously saying that “But we must not demand from America, because she is still our unfinished dream…we must give our lives that she might grow unencumbered.” (312)

Catherine Ceniza Choy (Choy) in her book Locating Empire of Care: nursing and migration in Filipino American history, discusses the life of the Filipinos nurses in America from the places they live and a detailed look at their experiences and achievements. Their experiences and formations are outlined from the time they arrived in America as immigrants to how their communities live in different locations in America. This dissection of Filipinos nurses in America presents the experiences they face of exploitation,silencing and racial construction and how this shaped their attitude. Choy says that since they arrived in America through an exchange program, they did not receive full salaries like other nurses but stipends and in some hospitals they worked under the most unfavorable conditions (96). The author dissected this work through historical data, ethnographical fieldwork and live recounts of participants in the history and culture of more than eighty individuals and their desires to claim a space in America. With their increase in population in America and their segregation from mainstream institutions of politics, economics and social aspects by the stereotypical society, they lived in communities. These communities have always fought hard against racism, homogenization, complete assimilation and preferential citizenship while at the same time adopting a culture that blends the homeland one and the one in their new home.

The story of Rosa Henson in her biography, Comfort Woman: A Filipinas story of prostitution and slavery under the Japanese military is another work of literature that describes in detail the experience of Filipinos in the hands of foreigners. The Japanese military started using brothels for exclusive use of its military in 1932 but soon the Japan run out of women and they began “recruiting” from other occupied land such as Philipines. The “recruiting” methods used in the Philippines and the experiences the often young girls meet can only be termed horrendous. Japanese soldiers would abduct the young girls from their homes and in some cases kill their parents and family if they resisted or they would buy them through brokers. Rosa Maria says of their experiences “twelve soldiers raped me in quick succession, after which I was given half an hour rest. Then twelve more soldiers followed” (Henson 76).

Conclusion

It is clear from the works of the three writers that the Filipinos faced many challenges at the hands of their social superiors or their sponsors. Racism is a common problem the nurses and nursing students and the characters in Bulosan books face. The exploitation of different kinds is experienced by all the characters in the three works among other challenges.

Works cited

Bulosan, Carols. America is in the Heart. United States of America: Classic Textbooks, 1946.

Choy, Catherine. Empire of Care: nursing and migration in Filipino American history. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2003.

Henson, Rosa. Comfort woman: a Filipino’s story of prostitution and slavery under the Japanese military. United States of America: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 1999.

This annotated bibliography on Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Removal Request
If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda.
Request the removal

Need a custom Annotated Bibliography sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar

certified writers online

Cite This paper
Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, January 10). Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences. https://ivypanda.com/essays/filipinos-in-america-comparison-of-experiences/

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, January 10). Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/filipinos-in-america-comparison-of-experiences/

Work Cited

"Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences." IvyPanda, 10 Jan. 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/filipinos-in-america-comparison-of-experiences/.

1. IvyPanda. "Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences." January 10, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/filipinos-in-america-comparison-of-experiences/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences." January 10, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/filipinos-in-america-comparison-of-experiences/.

References

IvyPanda. 2022. "Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences." January 10, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/filipinos-in-america-comparison-of-experiences/.

References

IvyPanda. (2022) 'Filipinos in America: Comparison of Experiences'. 10 January.

Powered by CiteTotal, the best citation machine
More related papers