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Food Nexus Tools and Results Research Paper


OSeMOSYS

Publication

Osemosys energy-food nexus is published in an article titled ‘Global Resource Modeling of the Climate, Land, Energy and Water (Clews) Nexus Using the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS)”.

Institution

The energy-food nexus study was conducted by researchers from the Division of Energy Systems Analysis of the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm (KTH). The country comprises of 50 states. Over the years, the country has experienced extensive growth (Onno et al. 15). In spite of the significant economic development, the nation still suffers from food insecurities.

Tool used and Reasons for its Preference

In the study, the researchers focus on the country’s plans to ensure all households across the 50 states are food secure. To carry out their research, the scholars applied Open Source Energy Modelling SYStem (OSeMOSYS) nexus tool. The model was used for various reasons. OSeMOSYS is a type of software used in long-run energy planning (Weirich 12). Its functioning is based on linear programming optimization methodologies. OSeMOSYS is also an uncomplicated, transparent, and powerful apparatus used to provide information. According to Weirich, the tool provides data on the advancement of local, national, and multi-regional energy plans (14). Other factors that informed the use of the tool include its flexibility and ease of use. In terms of user-friendliness, OSeMOSYS presents concepts in a transparent and intuitive manner.

Food Issue to be Resolved

The primary aim of the team of researchers from the Division of Energy Systems Analysis of the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm (KTH) was to resolve the issue of food insecurity in the US. The country boasts of the largest economy in the world (Weirich 25). However, hunger affects citizens of all ages in different parts of the states. A study by the United States Department of Agriculture revealed that 14.3 percent of households suffered from low food security in 2013. The situation was similar in the previous year where the prevalence stood at 14.5 percent.

Modeling of the Chosen Tool

Weirich modeled OSeMOSYS by linking it with Climate, Land, Energy, and Water (CLEW) nexus tool. The process was done to develop a basic illustration of the nexus networks.

The Methodology

The methodology used by the scholars in their study entailed creating two distinct modules on land use. In addition, materials were developed and merged with energy modules, which had been formulated earlier (Barrett 823).

Parameters

The parameters used included:

  1. The rate of food consumption in the US.
  2. The average size of households in the country (Weirich 26).
  3. The size of agricultural land.
  4. The number of crops grown (which was 13).

Results and Findings

From the research, the scholars and stakeholders came up with various results and findings. During the data collection process, most information was provided with ease (Weirich 27). However, the OSeMOSYS model could not be implemented as desired in various stages. The reason behind this is because of the changing requirements as the technique evolved. When analyzing energy and land use, the researchers discovered that there were slow expansion rates for agricultural lands. As a result, the annual yield increment, which was estimated to be 1%, could not meet the needs of all households (Robbins, Hintz and Moore 56). The demand for food and energy keeps on increasing.

Pros and Cons

There were no apparent strengths and weaknesses.

Markal Model

Name of Institution

The report was prepared by researchers from the Global Canopy Program in collaboration with the Climate and Development Knowledge Network. The Global Canopy is a tropical group whose primary focus is to transform the world into a deforestation-free economy. The aim of the study was to understand the interrelation between water problems and the water-energy-food nexus in Latin America (Bellfield 12).

Publication

The use of the model was published in an article titled ‘The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Latin America and the Caribbean.’

Tool used and Reasons for its Preference

To carry out their study, the researchers used the Markal Model. The tool was preferred due to its wide range of capabilities. According to Bellfield, the apparatus is suitable for conducting evaluation of diverse energy related systems and their evolution over a period of 40 to 50 years (15). The analysis can be done on regional, national, or state levels. Markal Model also provides researchers with a wide range of information on energy production and consumption. It also facilitates the comprehension of the relationship between macro-economy and energy use.

Food Issue to be Resolved

The Global Canopy Program used different case studies to analyze the energy-food nexus. In this section, the author will focus on Brazil’s case study on water conflicts. In 2014, the southeastern part of this country experienced a major drought. The catastrophe affected over 4 million citizens (Bellfield 18). Industrial and agricultural processes in such states as Sao Paolo, Minas Gerias, and Rio de Janeiro were affected by the disaster. Bellfield points out that the drought led to widespread water shortages (21). Water levels in most dams fell to below 5 percent. Due to the severity of the drought, it was expected that rains in January 2015 would not restore the levels of water reservoir to their normal state. The drought was one of the issues addressed using the Markal Model.

Modeling of the Tool

The team of researchers modeled the Markal tool by using three different approaches. They include bottom-up, top-down, and hybrid methodologies. The modeling techniques were applied because Markal Models are demand driven tools (Raj 667).

Methodology

The strategy adopted by the researchers entailed specifying exogenous energy demands for each network of processes. The Markal Models were interconnected using inputs, outputs, economic, and technical-based parameters (Bellfield 20).

Parameters

The parameters used include:

  1. Statistics on land, water, and energy requirements.
  2. Rate of water and energy consumption.
  3. Number of crops grown (which was 11).

Results and Findings

Scholars from Global Canopy Program made various observations. Latin America and the Caribbean have abundant water, land, energy resources. According to Saad, the regions have the largest water volume per capita in the world (78). In spite of the high rate of water accessibility, there is temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the availability of the resources. Increasing temperatures and natural catastrophes, such as the 2014 drought, affect water availability. Consequently, agricultural and energy production are affected negatively. More households from the two countries are likely to suffer from food insecurities. It is important for Latin American and Caribbean policy makers to adopt different nexus approaches to identify and resolve trade-offs.

Pros and Cons

The model has various disadvantages. For example, it is data sensitive and cannot assess uncertainties in the course of a research (Robbins, Hintz and Moore 56). In addition, the tool provides minimal room for researchers to model behavior.

GAEZ

Publication

The GAEZ food-energy nexus tool is published in ‘Estimating the Renewable Energy Potential in Africa: A GIS-Based Approach’.

Institution

The study was conducted by researchers from International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). IRENA is an inter-governmental corporation, which majors in helping countries to attain sustainable energy production vital for economic growth (Hermann, Miketa and Fichaux 25). On its part, KTH is a Swedish University that takes part in technical research. The primary aim of the study conducted by the two institutions was to understand the interconnection between energy, water, and food in the African continent.

Tool used and Reasons for its Preference

The researchers from IRENA and KTH used the Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) model in their study. The scholars cited various reasons that influenced their decision. For example, the GAEZ model is based on an inventory of land resources (Raj 701). As such, it facilitates the analysis of biophysical constraints. In addition, GAEZ enhances the evaluation of production capabilities of agricultural land. The process is vital because it allows planning and rational use of land (Hermann, Miketa and Fichaux 15). GAEZ was also preferred because of its ability to allow crop suitability assessments in different environments and temperatures.

Food Issue to be Resolved

The team of researchers was addressing the problem of food scarcity in Mozambique. Their primary focus was to provide alternative means of food and energy production without affecting the quality of the environment. Mozambique is ranked as one of the poorest nations in the world. According to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 70% of the population lives below the poverty line. Furthermore, 64 percent of the population suffers from food insecurity. Only about 47% of the citizens have access to water that is safe for human consumption (Saad 88). In the study, the scholars from IRENA and KTH discovered that agriculture is the primary source of livelihood in the country. Mozambique has the potential of providing enough food to feed its citizens. However, the nation suffers from multiple plagues and persistent natural disasters.

Modeling

The GAEZ tool was modeled by incorporating it with the IIASA World Food System model. The researchers used two vital sets of data to achieve this (Hermann, Miketa and Fichaux 30). The information was on actual yield production and the gaps between probable and definite yields.

Methodology

The strategy used study followed an environmental approach. The reason for this was to come up with a standardized structure suitable for the categorization of soil, climate, and terrain conditions (Hermann, Miketa and Fichaux 33).

Parameters

The parameters used included:

  1. The size of agricultural land.
  2. The number of crops grown (11).
  3. Data on economic and agricultural productivity.
  4. Data on energy demand, such as fuel consumption.
  5. The source of water (Limpopo River).

Results and Findings

Various observations were made. The researchers found that land is a resource useful for various human activities. According to Barrett, land is vital for food and agricultural production (826). It supports recreation, water catchment, and human settlement. To control the problem of food shortage, Mozambique should develop policies focusing on enhancing farm output and yield marketing. The country should also set up grain reservoirs where food can be accessed during times of natural disasters and plagues.

Pros and Cons

The researchers did not enumerate any strengths or limitations.

Farm Adaptive Dynamic Optimization (FADO)

Publication

The Farm Adaptive Dynamic Optimisation (FADO) is published in ‘Meeting Farmers’ Needs for Agro Meteorological Services: An Overview and Case Studies.

Institution

The food nexus report was prepared by a team of scholars from different institutions. They include the University of Free State, Indian Meteorological Department, University of Western Sydney, China Agricultural University, and Ningxia Meteorological Research Institute. Other organizations include the Hebei Institute of Meteorological Sciences and University of Gezira (Kees et al. 2).

Tool Used

The team of researchers used Farm Adaptive Dynamic Optimization (FADO) model. The tool was preferred due to its wide range of capabilities. According to Kees et al., FADO comprises of diverse and interlinked methodologies (10). The tool facilitates the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of climate related susceptibilities and risks. It also provides researchers with practical information useful to farmers. The data can be used to develop agricultural adaptation strategies. The tool has the capacity to integrate information garnered by different conventional models based on varying scales of evaluation (Saad 55).

Food Issue

The team of researchers conducted their study in three nations. They analyzed the issue of food, farming, and markets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The primary aim of their study was to provide farmers and other stakeholders with agro-meteorological information to enhance farming practices (Kees et al. 24). In this section, the author will focus on the study conducted in Zambia. The country is categorized as a lower middle income nation.

However, it still struggles to feed its population. According to the Human Development Index report, the nation is 163rd of the 186 poorest countries in the world. Food insecurity is caused by a wide range of factors. Robbins, Hintz, and Moore point out that the primary cause of the problem is over-reliance on rain-fed agriculture (61). Lack of market incentives is also cited as another factor. The researchers discovered that the number of households lacking access to adequate food was higher in 2013 than in 2012.

Modeling

The scholars modeled the nexus apparatus by incorporating different instruments to come up with a final complete tool. FADO is broad in nature (Kees et al. 33). As such, the researchers set it by integrating both external and internal effects.

Methodology

The approach comprised of three phases. They include development, pilot, and consolidation stages. At the development level, the scholars incorporated existing data sets, decision support, and operational tools. Pilot phase entailed development of communication strategies to and from the farm level (Kees et al. 35). The final strategy involved evaluating the technological opportunities.

Parameters

The parameters were:

  1. The size of agricultural land.
  2. Number of crops grown (8).
  3. Rate of food consumption per household.
  4. Data on changes in water availability for agricultural use.
  5. Water source (River Kabompo).

Results

The findings made can be used to resolve the issue of food scarcity in Zambia. The country’s agricultural sector has little yields. In 2013, more people suffered from hunger than in 2012 (Saad 87). The trend shows that the country needs to intensify its food production. Zambia relies on rain-fed agriculture. The nation’s agricultural research institutes should encourage the breeding of different crops that can withstand low rainfall. Farmers should also be informed of the importance of planting high yield crops and exploiting the country’s irrigation potential.

Pros and Cons

There were none.

FAO-ASIS

Publication

The FAO-ASIS (Agricultural Stress Index System) is published in ‘Feasibility of using FAO-Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) as a Remote Sensing based Index for Crop Insurance’.

Institution

The energy-food nexus study was conducted by scholars from various institutions. The bodies include FAO, FERDI, IRI, WFP, USAID, and IFAD. Others are JICA, IFPRI, UCDAVIS, SYNGENTA, Swiss-RE, and the University of Athens.

Tool

The model used for the study was FAO-ASIS. The primary objective of the team was to provide insight on how to increase food production in African countries (Rojas and Shukri 1). The researchers preferred the FAO-ASIS approach due to its wide range of applications. According to Raj, the tool is easy to use (665). ASIS is based on the vegetation Health Index. As such, it helps experts to evaluate the duration, intensity, and spatial degree of droughts. The new and improved ASIS can be used to carry out research on water stress at the global level. Droughts are becoming more frequent in today’s world (Barrett 826). Consequently, serious and quick actions need to be taken to reduce the impacts of the disaster.

Food Issue

The food problem to be addressed was low crop production in various African countries. The scholars examined different countries from the east, south, central, and western regions of the continent. In this section, the author will focus on the study conducted in Kenya. Agriculture is the mainstay of the country’s economy (Rojas and Shukri 3). According to a report by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, over 80 percent of the population makes a living from agricultural-related activities. Over the past few years, the nation has been suffering from food insecurity problems. Saad notes that the issue is caused by a wide range of factors (95). They include persistent droughts in different parts of the country, displacement of famers, and high cost of domestic food production.

Modeling of the Tool

Rojas and Shukri modeled the tool by linking it to a satellite. The reason for this was to allow it to collect data on land and vegetation from a sensor at 1km resolution. In addition, the researchers integrated the tool with NDVI to provide data on seasonal changes.

Methodology Adopted

The methodology employed by the scholars in their study entailed calculating the percentage of each agricultural area unit with a VHI index lower than 35. According to Rojas and Shukri, the computation can be done using data collected over a period of 30 years (3).

Parameters Used

The parameters used by the researchers during the study were:

  1. The average size of the households.
  2. Data on food consumption.
  3. Number of crops grown (9).
  4. Statistics on land and water requirements.

Results and Findings

The two researchers made a number of findings in their study. In terms of the tool’s usage, the scholars discovered that for an ASIS to be used at a country level, it has to be tested and well calibrated. To resolve the problem of food insecurity, Kenya needs to develop various policies. Some of the most vital frameworks include supply, price, and income-related guidelines (Rojas and Shukri 4). With regards to policies linked to supply, the nation can enhance research services, improve rural infrastructure, allow import of tax free grains, and encourage diversification of planted crops.

Pros and Cons

There were no strengths and weaknesses indicated.

COYOTE: Crop Monitoring and Yield Forecasting for Early Warning Systems

Publication

The COYOTE was reported in ‘Review of Crop Yield Forecasting Methods and Early Warning Systems’.

Institution

The nexus study was prepared by Basso, Cammarano, and Carfagna from Michigan University, USA. The primary goal of their research was to provide in-depth information on modern crop yield forecasting methods. The scholars also focused on providing an overview on early warning signs needed to enhance agricultural production across the globe.

Tool Used

The team of researchers made use of COYOTE. The scholars cited various reasons for using the model. To begin with, the tool allows experts to describe simulation models and yield gaps. It also helps them to carry out remote sensing procedures (Basso, Cammarano and Carfagna 15). In addition, COYOTE provides information on patterns of crop growth and yield. Other reasons informing the use of the tool include its ability to allow interpretation of agronomic results. It also provides detailed information on soil-plant-atmosphere system.

Food Issue

Basso, Cammarano, and Carfagna aimed to address the problem of low agricultural production (2). One of the countries analyzed is Senegal. Senegal is considered to be one of the most stable countries in West Africa. However, it has recorded a slow rate of economic growth over the past few years. Food insecurity is a major problem (Basso, Cammarano and Carfagna 25). Natural calamities, such as floods and droughts, are the major causes of the problem. The catastrophes affect the level of food production and access to markets. In spite of the reported annual average harvest, the World Food Program indicates that many households suffer from food insecurity.

Over the past few decades, the country has experienced phases of erratic rainfall patterns and rising sea-levels (Saad 62). All these factors result in erosion and degradation of agricultural soil.

Modeling

The researchers modeled the chosen tool by linking it with a wide range of different models. Some of those used include statistical, mechanistic, and functional models. Basso, Cammarano, and Carfagna point out that all the approaches are interlinked and essential in evaluating warning crop and yield warning system (29).

Methodology

The approach applied by the scholars entailed the use of computerized representations of crop growth, yield, and development. The depictions were then simulated through mathematical equations. Another methodology employed was remote sensing. The process entailed the collection of data from various platforms, such as satellites and handheld radiometers (Basso, Cammarano and Carfagna 44).

Parameters

The scholars used a number of parameters in their study. The considerations included:

  1. The region’s latitude and longitude, average annual temperature, and elevation.
  2. Daily global soil radiation and rainfall.
  3. The type of soil, its texture, density, and organic carbon content.
  4. Data on the average size of households.
  5. Number of crops grown (9).

Results

The researchers made various observations that can help Senegal deal with the problem of food insecurity. The most hunger-stricken areas are the southern and central regions. The team of scholars came up with a number of recommendations to help the country address the problem. One of the approaches entails focusing on the most vulnerable regions (Basso, Cammarano and Carfagna 35). In such areas, activities like the improvement of disaster mitigation infrastructure can be carried out. The nation should also develop ways of managing uncertainties related to climate change.

Pros and Cons

The researchers did not identify any pros and cons.

FAO-MOSAICC

Publication

The FAO-MOSAICC (Modeling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change) model is published in ‘FAO-MOSAICC: The FAO Modeling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change to Support Decision-Making Adaptation’.

Institution

The research was conducted by scholars from the Institute of Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam Netherlands, and Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. The primary aim of the study was to develop ways of climate data downscaling, hydrological modeling, and spatial interpolation. In addition, Onno et al. formulated ways of enhancing crop production and economic growth in developing countries (22).

Tool Used

The FAO-MOSAICC model was used. The team cited numerous reasons for using the approach. MOSAICC is composed of a number of other models and utilities developed to conduct inter-disciplinary climate change evaluations. The models operate through simulations (Onno et al. 11). The researchers also chose MOSAICC because it makes it possible to assess the variations in crop yields and their impacts on the economy of the country.

Food Issue to be Resolved

The team of researchers from the two institutions aimed at addressing the problem of low crop production in Morocco. Morocco is one of the successful nations in the African continent (Robbins, Hintz and Moore 73). Between 2000 and 2010, the country’s economy grew at a rate of 4.5 percent annually. According to World Food Program reports, 40% of the citizens are based in rural regions. Such people depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. In spite of the great economic improvement in the country, most people still languish in poverty and cannot access enough food. The level of poverty in rural areas is three times higher compared to that in urban regions. In their study, the researchers found out that about 10% of the rural population lives below the poverty line. The issue of food insecurity is caused by, among others, constant rises in food prices (Raj 664). The country also depends too much on imports.

Modeling of the Chosen Tool

Onno et al. modeled the tool by use of Linux and Windows Platforms (4). The scholars also linked MOSAICC to AQUACROP, WABAL, and STREAM models. AQUACROP is a water-driven crop device used for irrigation scheduling. It is also used for water management at the field level.

The Methodology Used

The team constructed FAO-MOSAICC based on a generic approach. They used low resolution projections for future climates. The projections were produced by General Circulation Models (Onno et al. 17).

Parameters

The parameters used by the team of researchers included:

  1. The rate of food consumption in Morocco.
  2. The average size of households in the country.
  3. The number of crops grown (11).
  4. Data on annual yields.
  5. Data on the state of the weather in the country.

Results

Onno et al. made a number of findings (20). The issue of food prices is a major problem in Morocco. It has a significant impact on food security. Households spend an average of 40 percent of their income on this item. The rate among the poorer family circles is as high as 75%. The government should encourage its citizens to take part in agricultural activities. The reason is to reduce dependence on imports. According to Raj, imports are expensive (700). In some instances, the price of commodities becomes high and volatile.

Pros and Cons

The team of researchers did not enumerate any strengths and weaknesses.

FAO and its Efforts to Improve Food Security

FAO is an intergovernmental organization made up of over 194 member states. The group has its headquarters in Rome, Italy. Currently, it has operations in over 130 nations (Robbins, Hintz and Moore 69). The employees working for the association are selected from diverse cultural backgrounds. In addition, they are experts in different fields. FAO takes part in various activities aimed at managing the problem of food insecurity. To conduct its operations, the organization depends on voluntary contributions.

FAO has made efforts aimed at managing food insecurity. One of the measures entails strengthening political will among countries. The organization supports governments and development partners in their endeavors to formulate the right policies and legal frameworks aimed at promoting food security and nutrition (Saad 50). The agency enhances governance and coordination. It encourages key stakeholders to focus on measures and activities vital in eradicating hunger and malnutrition.

FAO plays an essential role in the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of hunger management policies. It works with partners to scrutinize the impacts of the efforts made in fighting food insecurity and lessons learnt (Raj 701). The body supports practices aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity. It formulates and shares the developed strategies with partners. FAO also develops and promotes activities that increase food productivity and save natural resources.

The agency advocates for the adoption of international policies and guidelines that facilitate improved productivity and better agricultural practices. It strives to improve prospects of the poor rural people in accessing decent lands for cultivation (Robbins, Hintz and Moore 110). It also enhances the inclusiveness and efficiency of food systems. The body does this by gathering information on agriculture and markets. FAO works with the governments of member states to improve small-scale agricultural practices.

Recommendations for a Nexus Tool

There are various food-nexus tools that can be used to carry out personal research on food insecurities in different parts of the globe. Based on the analysis made in part 2 above, this author recommends the FAO-MOSAICC and FAO-ASSIS models. The reason for this is because the two tools can be combined in a wide range of scenarios. In addition, they can be linked with other models to provide more information on land usage and climate changes. In today’s world, most countries are grappling with the problem of poor climatic conditions, which affect agricultural production (Saad 89). As such, it is important for nations to develop ways of evaluating climate changes and predicting the duration of droughts.

The two recommended tools can help to manage the issue of food insecurity if used as required. MOSAICC comprises of different models and utilities used in evaluating climatic changes and their impacts on agriculture (Onno et al. 36). To gather sufficient information, the tool can be combined with different models, such as STREAM, WABAL, AQUACROP, and Statistical Downscaling Portal.

Changes in climate require nations to come up with measures to manage the resulting calamities (Raj 668). The FAO-ASIS nexus tool helps users to come up with such strategies. The model is built using a Vegetation Health Index. The feature helps in evaluating the duration and degree of probable droughts. In addition, it is important in measuring the level of ground water. Apart from these capabilities, the two recommended models are user-friendly. The parameters recommended to build the study module using the two tools include data on crops grown, agricultural productivity, and statistics on water requirements.

Works Cited

Barrett, Christopher. “Measuring Food Insecurity.” Science 327.5967 (2010): 825-828. Print.

Basso, Bruno, Davide Cammarano, and Elisabetta Carfagna. . n.d. Web.

Bellfield, Helen. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Latin America and the Caribbean: Trade-Offs, Strategic Priorities, and Entry Points. 2015. Web.

Hermann, Sebastian, Asami Miketa, and Nicolas Fichaux. . 2014. Web.

Kees, Stigter, Sue Walker, H. Das, Samsul Huda, Zheng Dawei, Liu Jing, Li Chunqiang, Ismabel Hurtado, Ahmed Mohammed, Ahmed Abdalla, Nageeb Bakheit, Nawal Al-Amin, Wei Yurong, Josiah Kinama, Durton Nanja and Pieter Haasbroek. Meeting Farmers’ Needs for Agrometeorological Services: An Overview and Case Studies. 2010. Web.

Onno, Kuik , Frédéric Reynès, Francois Delobel and Michelle Bernardi. FAO-MOSAICC: . 2011. Web.

Raj, Patel. “Food Sovereignty.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 36.3 (2009): 663-706. Print.

Robbins, Paul, John Hintz, and Sarah Moore. Environment and Society: A Critical Introduction, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.

Rojas, Oscar, and Ahmed Shukri. . n.d. Web.

Saad, Majda. The Global Hunger Crisis: Tackling Food Insecurity in Developing Countries, London: Pluto Press, 2013. Print.

Weirich, Manuel. . 2013. Web.

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