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Genders do differ, and people should accept this factor to create a society free from stereotypes and prejudiced attitudes. Today, one can observe the rise of the ideas of tolerance and equality that can be taken as one of the central forces directing the evolution of communities, shaping the international discourse, and preconditioning the appearance of various civil movements and concepts. All these ideas have an important goal, which is to eliminate any forms of discrimination and cultivate an environment where representatives of all genders, cultures, races, and religions will be able to communicate free.
However, in an attempt to reconsider stereotypical patterns that had been relevant for a longer period of history, activists create the basis for the emergence of another problem as the natural boundary between genders, which comes from the anatomical and physiological differences, starts to disappear, and it is dangerous for the future generations. There are fundamental differences in males’ and females’ bodies that precondition the existence of various behaviors, aggression levels and patterns, and sexualities serving a basis for the beneficial partnership and gender relations.
Prior to the analysis of the given problem, it is critical to create the background for debates and outline the position that will be offered in the paper. The main argument is that the leading cause of the difference in genders is human nature and anatomy, which precondition the existence of specific mechanisms in males and females to guarantee their survival. However, it does not mean that they should serve as the factor promoting discrimination or emphasizing the superior or inferior character of one gender or another.
On the contrary, and in accordance with modern ideas, all individuals should enjoy the same level of respect and a tolerant attitude regardless of any possible factors. At the same time, the environment of this sort can be created only with the correct understanding of people’s physiology and peculiarities of behaviors.
The topicality of the selected issue can be proven by the existence of multiple research papers devoted to it. The majority of researchers are united in the opinion that the presence of gender differences should not be disregarded, and its significance cannot be intentionally reduced as it might create a dangerous precedent resulting in the collapse of society (Bjorkvist, 2018; Freeman et al., 2017).
Thus, one of the first visible differences is adherence to various behavioral patterns in daily living. Bjorkvist (2018) assumes that it mainly comes from the existence of specific mentalities peculiar to males and females that had been formed for centuries under the impact of both social and physiological factors and preconditioned the appearance of various spheres of interests, occupations, desires, and goals. Due to the continuous evolution process, humanity has elaborated patterns that became the most effective measures to survive and reproduce. That is why we can still observe critical discrepancies between men and women.
For instance, aggression is one of the first factors that should be mentioned when cogitating about a given issue. Bjorkvist (2018), analyzing the existence of various patterns peculiar to boys and girls at the early ages of their development, assumes that there are specific genetic determinants of both physical and indirect aggression as these types can provide certain evolutionary advantages. In his study, the researcher outlines the fact that boys more often engage in direct, violent, or physical forms of behaviors, while girls are more likely to utilize verbal tools to attack others (Bjorkvist, 2018).
The existence of this fact comes from the peculiarities of groups to which males and females belong and relations within these very units (Bjorkvist, 2018). Additionally, there is a strong influence of archetypes that exist in various societies and encourage individuals to act in particular ways, which means that boys feel free to fight and girls can use hidden forms that have usually been their basic way to protect themselves from violent actions (Bjorkvist, 2018). In such a way, the difference can be seen in the early ages, and with future development, it preserves and remains one of the factors shaping individuals’ behavior.
More detailed investigations also show that there are specific inborn traits that precondition the existence of various behavior styles. Bjorkvist (2018) concludes that prenatal hormone exposure is one of the vital factors that have a strong impact on the appearance of particular aggressive patterns. In other words, the difference between genders starts to appear in the first stages of an embryo’s evolution because of the effect of hormones (Freeman et al., 2017). Moreover, the life of any person since his/her childhood and up to the end depends on the functioning of the endocrine system and endocrine profile (Freeman et al., 2017).
The given factor serves as the main source of diversity in behaviors among people. Bjorkvist (2018) outlines the known fact that testosterone, also known as a male hormone, preconditions the appearance of aggressive behavioral patterns, the desire to compete, struggle, and engage in violent actions. That is why men, who are the leading producers of this hormone, are prone to physical aggression, fights, or rivalry.
Nevertheless, women also experience the strong impact of hormones, which shape their behaviors. Freeman et al. (2017) report that because of the effect of estrogen, which is produced in female bodies in larger quantities than in male ones, they avoid direct confrontations presuppose physical attacks or another sort of violent actions. Instead, indirect or verbal forms are chosen. In such a way, the existence of radical differences in men and women and their use of aggression styles is preconditioned by their bodies and the way they work. This fact can be used as one of the strong arguments to demonstrate that genders are not equal in all aspects, and it should be accepted to align useful cooperation.
Another important point that should be mentioned regarding the selected theme is sexuality. Today, it is one of the disputable spheres because of the existence of multiple taboos, stereotypes, and prejudiced opinions related to the given field. Moreover, for decades, it has been considered an uncomfortable question that cannot be discussed because of the existing social norms. Due to the attempts to eliminate unfair or old perspectives on relations, the idea of sexuality is widely discussed and investigated.
For instance, Freeman et al. (2017) assume that regardless of the attempts to change the attitude to the sphere of sexuality and promote the idea that men and women have equal desires and demands, there are still critical discrepancies that should be considered. Under the impact of civil rights movements and emancipation, the scope of gender differences narrowed in the second half of the 20th century for many variables and aspects (Lankveld, Wolfs, & Grauvogl, 2018). However, studies show that today, they still remain, and, in the majority of cases, they are not associated with some forms of discrimination. It means that the main cause of this diversity is the nature of men and women.
In general, sexuality can be determined as a person’s sexual orientation, preference, and sexual activity. It means that there is a broad scope of factors that should be analyzed when speaking about the differences between men and women in this aspect. For instance, the study by Beam, Marcus, Turkheimer, and Emery (2018) shows that both males and females have no serious divergences in their attitudes to homosexual relations, which means that under the strong impact of society and the topical discourse, they managed to elaborate patterns that will help them to remain involved and participate in the majority of processes (Beam et al., 2018).
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At the same time, the in-depth investigation of this issue shows that women have overall more negative implicit attitudes to sexuality than men (Lankveld et al., 2018). Under the term implicit attitudes, investigators mean a set of judgments or relations to social objects that unconsciously appear in individuals (Lankveld et al., 2018). Additionally, Lankveld et al. (2018) outline that women also have stronger negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. The given factors show that representatives of both genders have various preferences and perspectives on intimate relations that precondition their attitudes to the discussed sphere.
The divergence in attitudes mentioned above impacts individuals’ behavior and the way they respond to various stressors or factors. One of the causes of the appearance of these differences is the evolution and the development of specific mechanisms in the body needed to reproduce. For instance, Beam et al. (2018) state that due to the natural distribution of roles presupposing that females give birth, their behaviors and bodies are more focused on reproduction and search for an appropriate partner if to compare with men, who might have other motifs for engaging in sexual relations or other forms of partnership.
This opinion can be criticized today by some activists or representatives of another perspective, stating that sexuality is nowadays more impacted by personal preferences and some social factors (Beam et al., 2018). However, the endocrine profile also evidences the existence of some alterations when speaking about men and women.
Finally, there is another factor that should be taken to demonstrate the difference between genders. Doyle, Voyer, and Lesmana (2016) suppose that there are significant discrepancies in the way male and female thinking works. It has always been one of the aspects used to promote discriminative patterns by proclaiming that representatives of one or another cohort are cleverer and should play dominant roles in society. Today, with the appearance and prevalence of the ideas of tolerance, the given positive is weak and almost eliminated; however, there is also an improved understanding that there are really some differences between men and women regarding this aspect.
Investigations show that females are better at memorizing things, and they can easily recall all events that happened many years ago (Deng, Chang, Yang, Huo, & Zhou, 2016). The scientific explanation of this fact states that women have a larger hippocampus, the part of the body responsible for these processes (Doyle et al., 2016). That is why they are more successful in this sort of activity and can engage in fields that demand these skills to be more successful.
Nevertheless, men are less emotional than women in everyday life. Fischer, Kret, and Broekens (2018) find that males “more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women,” which is an important aspect impacting relations of gender and their responses. In general, the given study shows that there are fundamental discrepancies in emotion perception that comes both from the peculiarities of the bodies, mentalities, and the impact of society.
At the same time, men have lower scores of emotional intelligence, which results in an increased level of stress as they are not able to correctly realize factors affecting their moods and introduce appropriate measures to eliminate them or mitigate their adverse effects. (Fischer et al., 2018). The given study shows that genders remain different in this vital domain due to the critical divergence in mechanisms that are used to analyze and accept some strong facilitators. That is why men and women might have problems in understanding as things clear to one cohort can be confusing to another, and vice versa. The existence of these issues also evidences that there is no equality from the physiological perspective as bodies function in various ways.
Altogether, the review of the literature devoted to the issue helps to prove the idea that there are significant differences between genders. Men and women are not equal from the physiological perspective, and any attempt to cultivate the opposite point of view can be dangerous for society as they can destroy the basis for the enhanced cooperation between these cohorts and give rise to multiple misunderstandings in the future. The main causes for the appearance of these discrepancies are the functioning of bodies, the brain, and the endocrine systems that produce various hormones impacting behavioral patterns, aggression styles, emotions, and responses to stressors.
Beam, C., Marcus, K., Turkheimer, E., & Emery, R. (2018). Gender differences in the structure of marital quality. Behavior Genetics, 48(3), 209-223. Web.
Bjorkvist, K. (2018). Gender differences in aggression. Current Opinion in Psychology, 39-42. Web.
Deng, Y., Chang, L., Yang, M., Huo, M., & Zhou, R. (2016). Gender differences in emotional response: Inconsistency between experience and expressivity. PLoS One, 11(6). Web.
Doyle, R. A., Voyer, D., & Lesmana, M. (2016). Item type, occlusion, and gender differences in mental rotation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69(8), 1530–1544. Web.
Fischer, A., Kret, M., & Broekens, J. (2018). Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis. PLoS One, 13(1). Web.
Freeman, A., Stanko, P., Berkowitz, L., Parnell, N., Zuppe, A., Bale, … Epperson, N. (2017). Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: Survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania. Biology of Sex Differences, 8. Web.
Lankveld, J., Wolfs, K., & Grauvogl, A. (2018). Gender differences in the relationship of sexual functioning with implicit and explicit sex liking and sex wanting: A community sample study. The Journal of Sex Research. Web.