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The Global Definition of Health Coursework

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Whether Leaders could Achieve Consensus on Global Health Values

Health values are diverse in terms of what is being prioritized by institutions and countries. However, greater efforts towards normalizing the global health values have been put in place. The main reason for the normalization of values is to provide universal health. In fact, various attempts by stakeholders to find a common ground on the ethical issues concerning health have not resulted in positive outcomes.

The variations in ideas, practices, disciplines, ethical issues as well as philosophies have prevented the establishment of common values in health despite efforts made by various stakeholders and governments (Holtz, 2013).

The consensus on common values is far from being achieved given the divided nature of the health profession and practice. Various global institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have not emphasized on the advocacy of the common values. Indeed, such organizations rely greatly on institutional values and universal ethical considerations (Holtz, 2013).

Unless global health organizations emphasize on developing a framework on how such common values can be attained, leaders cannot easily reach the consensus. The reason is that the leaders are diverse in terms of their views and understanding of global health.

The Global Definition of Health

The definition of health varies invariably across the globe. While others tend to define health in terms of public health, others emphasize on the international health definition. However, there exist commonalities in all the definitions.

The commonalities in the definition include application of data and laboratory evidence in decision-making, emphasis on the larger population, social justice and equity as the main objective and focus on deterrence instead of therapy (Koplan, Bond, Merson, Reddy, Rodriguez, Sewankambo & Wasserheit, 2009). As such, universal definition of health can be derived from these commonalities.

Therefore, health is the art and science, an area for study, research and practice that prioritize the improvement of wellbeing as well as attaining equity in the health provision for all people around the globe (Koplan et al., 2009). Besides, health focuses on the universal determinant and providing solutions to all health problems worldwide.

Besides, health involves various areas of study both within health sciences and areas related to the health sciences as well as emphasizes on partnerships across the disciplines. Within the definition, health focuses on the fusion of population-based prevention in addition to individual care. Therefore, the universal definition of health should focus on the provision of health services to all people.

Whether Embryos should be used to Grow Organs

Stem cell technology has been widely applied despite objection from various fields and governments. While the application of embryonic cells has been strongly rejected by ethicists, stem cells should morally be used in various areas including the treatment of chronic diseases. In fact, studies indicate that embryonic cells have wide applications in the treatment of various neurodegenerative maladies including cancer (Panno, 2009).

Besides, various diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injuries and most of the pulmonary as well as arterial diseases are well-treated using stem cells. However, the ethical considerations in the applications of the stem cells have prevented research and development of embryonic cells for medical purposes (Panno, 2009).

Besides ethical considerations, hurdles such as the safety of the treatments and use of the stem cells in various organs have also slowed down the development of the stem cell technology for medical purposes (Panno, 2009). However, researches indicate increased safety in stem cell therapies.

In fact, embryonic stem cell therapies exceed a mere cell transplant. Essentially, embryonic cell therapies could be used to identify new cures, study diseases as well as other applications such as screening drugs for side effects (Panno, 2009). Therefore, embryonic cells should be applied in morally acceptable therapies.

Strategies that can be applied in Equalizing Technology Distribution Globally

Inequality in the distribution of technology is widely experienced in its function and availability. While new technological advances are extensively applied in rich countries, developing economies are lagging behind in terms of both application and availability (Rooksby & Weckert, 2007).

Unequal distribution of technology is majorly caused by deficiency of resources as well as awareness of its availability and usage. Therefore, strategies aimed at equalizing the technology distribution must focus on the resource availability and increased awareness.

Resources Distribution

The development, availability and use of technology require resources. In fact, the availability of resources determines the availability and use of technology. In other words, there is a direct correlation between the resource distribution and the technological spread.

Therefore, resources geared towards the development of technology should be shared equally around the globe in order to have equal distribution of technology (Rooksby & Weckert, 2007).

Increased Awareness

Increasing awareness of the availability and use of technology is another way through which equal distribution of technology can be attained. Focusing on education, commercial advertisements and media channels are critical in raising technological awareness (De Ferranti, 2003). Studies indicate that lack of technological awareness in terms of usage and availability contributes hugely to its unequal distribution around the globe.

References

De Ferranti, D. M. (2003). Closing the gap in education and technology. Washington, D.C: World Bank Publications.

Holtz, C. (2013). Global health care: Issues and policies. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Koplan, J., Bond, C. Merson, M., Reddy , K. S., Rodriguez, M. H., Sewankambo, N. K. & Wasserheit, J. N. (2009). Towards a common definition of health. The Lancet, 373(9679), 1993 – 1995

Panno, J. (2009). Stem cell research: medical applications and ethical controversy. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.

Rooksby, E. & Weckert, J. (2007). Information technology and social justice. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

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