Throughout the history of humanity, there were different approaches to the issue of governance. People tried to create an ideal system that will be able to take into account all needs and demands of society at the same time providing efficient management of a state. It is obvious, that not all attempts were ideal. It is possible to say that majority of known conflicts in history happened because of the drawbacks in governance. However, people tried to understand their mistakes and conducted different researches connected with the forms of governance and its main principles. As a result of these investigations different points of view on the issue of governance appeared. That is why it is possible to analyze some unusual approach to this question in order to understand its main peculiarities and determine the aspects of this system. The structure of power of the Mikmaq people can serve as an example.
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To do it better, it is possible to analyze the main principles of government that exist nowadays and creates the basis of each system. First of all, an efficient governance system should take into account the fact that there are multiple layers of identity. It means, that every person has his own peculiarities and attitudes to certain issues. A human being is a very complicated creature. Moreover, its conscience is determined by different aspects. It is very important for every man to realize who he/she is, what his/her main needs and beliefs are. That is why the Mikmaq people have a special Grand Council which is made of captains with a Grand Chief at the head. This regulatory body should take into account all needs of common people.
There are also different layers of governance. It means that there are relationships between different main actors situated in different regions of a state. It is made for several reasons. First of all, such a system promotes better and more efficient management of a state. Orders, laws, and other acts can be recognized and executed much faster. Moreover, local authorities and officials can control the observation of the main laws. Additionally, multi-level governance allows better interrelation between people and authorities. It is oblivious, that officials in the regions will be able to take into account all needs of local people and try to fulfill them informing other regulatory bodies about these needs. The Grand Council of the Mikmaq people serves as an ideal model that illustrates this principle. Each of its captains is subordinated to the Grand Chief. However, they have great power in their regions. It is made for them to be able to manage the whole Mikmaq peoples territories efficiently.
However, speaking about efficient governance it is impossible not to mention the main source of authority. It is obvious, that people in every country are subdivided into certain groups. The majority of people are ruled by the minority which is given certain powers. Besides, there are different sources of this power. The most obvious source of authority is the law of a state. Under modern conditions, this source of authority can be called the best one as it guarantees the existence of a state within the framework of its legislative system. The Mikmaq people follow the same model. Their main political body is the electoral. People choose captains who, in their turn, choose the Grand Chef. This system is simple but effective.
However, each power should not be absolute. That is why it is obvious that there should be a certain scope of authority for every official or regulatory body. The limit, which can regulate the possibilities of a certain official, should be created by people who inhabit a state. They should be able to vest a person with powers or make the limit even stricter. That is why the question of the scope of authority is very important. Having absolute power, a person will be able to forget about his/her main duties trying to satisfy his/her own interests. That is why the main political body of the Mikmaq people is electoral and there is a certain scope of authority for captains and the Grand Chief. They could be easily deposed and new ones could be elected.
Outlining the main principles of governance, it is possible to admit that its efficient functioning is possible due to the existence of certain laws that regulate the main aspects of the work of government and the functioning of society. These laws create some hierarchy that determines the main peculiarities of relations between different regulatory bodies and common people. However, it should be said that sometimes there is a need to change the existing hierarchy and it is possible to do it only with the help of the alteration of existing laws. That is why each layer of governance should have a law making ability. Having rather a simple state structure with not a great number of different laws, the Mikmaq people still have the instruments for making some changes in the structure of power as they could replace captains and choose new ones.
Having analyzed the main principles of governance, it is possible to say that the Mikmaq people have an organized and efficient structure of the functioning of their government which is deprived of some disadvantages of modern bureaucratic systems.