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Heroin Overdose and Socioeconomic Status Relationship Coursework

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Updated: Sep 22nd, 2022

Bachhuber, Saloner, and Cunningham (2014) investigate mortality because of opioid analgesic overdose. The analysis includes data on mortality from 1999 to 2010. The research revealed that the death rates were smaller in states with laws on medical cannabis use. Besides, it is underlined that the lower death rates from opioid pain removers overdose did not mean the increase of heroin-connected deaths.

Cooper, West, Linton, Hunter-Jones, Zlotorzynska, Stall, and Friedman (2016) discover the contextual predictors of injection drug use among black adolescents and adults. The study is based on the statistical data for 15 years and evaluates the rates of injection drug use by African Americans. The results proved that contextual factors had an impact on the drug use among Black people.

The article on the research “HIV risk, health, and social characteristics of sexual minority female injection drug users in Baltimore” by German, and Latkin (2015) describes the health and social differences among sexual minority women who use drugs. Homosexual women that are also injection drug users are at higher risk for social vulnerability and HIV.

The article by Heimer, Barbour, Palacios, Nichols and Grau (2014) investigates the associations between injection risk and community disadvantage among suburban injection drug users. The growth of drug addiction and overdose was the reason for the research. It assessed not only the drug abuse but also included HIV, hepatitis B, and C testing. The lack of social support is supposed to be the cause of wide injection practices resulting in an overdose.

The research by Juon, Evans-Polce, and Ensminger (2013) discovers cause-specific mortality among African Americans in cities. They studied mortality from diseases and mortality from HIV, drug or alcohol use. Men survival rates proved to be lower than those of women. Besides, the research revealed the connection between the aggressive behavior of children and the rates of drug use and crime.

Maragh-Bass, Powell, Park, Flynn, and German (2016) study sociodemographic and access-related correlates of health-care utilization among African American injection drug users. They state that people who use drugs do not have enough access to health-care services. It is especially true concerning African Americans. Despite the improvement in insurance policies and the growth of health-care availability, the mortality of this group is still high.

An investigation provided by Rowe, Santos, Vittinghoff, Wheeler, Davidson, and Coffin (2016) also is dedicated to opioid overdose deaths. As of 2013, opioid mortality was growing. The spread of naloxone, initially aimed at the reduction of opioid overdose death rates, had the unpredictable effect. The Census analysis revealed the small amount of African Americans and more overdose deaths in naloxone distribution areas.

Rudolph, Linton, Dyer, and Latkin (2013) provide the research of individual, network, and neighborhood relations among female drug addicts in Baltimore. The study assesses HIV risk environment. The results show the sex and drug relations of women who use drugs. The researchers suppose that the organization of social support not related to drug support may positively influence the HIV-risk behaviors.

Schwartz, Gryczynski, O’Grady, Sharfstein, Warren, Olsen, and Jaffe (2013) conducted research on opioid agonist treatments and heroin overdose deaths. They have studied the connection between methadone and buprenorphine application and the increase in heroin overdose deaths in Baltimore, Maryland. The research revealed the fact that overdose mortality reduced from 1999 to 2008. It may be the result of the broader availability of opioid treatment.

A study by Schwartz, Kelly, Gryczynski, Mitchell, O’Grady, and Jaffe (2015) investigates the influence of the growing access to methadone treatment on the overdose mortality. As a result, no connection was found between the quantity of patients receiving methadone treatment and the rate of heroin overdose mortality.

References

Bachhuber, N.A., Saloner, B., & Cunningham, C.O. (2014). . JAMA International Medicine, 174(10),1668-1673.

Cooper, H.L.F., West, B., Linton, S., Hunter-Jones, J., Zlotorzynska, M., Stall, R. … Friedman, S.R. (2016). Contextual predictors of injection drug use among black adolescents and adults in US metropolitan areas, 1993–2007. American Journal of Public Health, 106(3), 517-526. Web.

German, D., & Latkin, C.A. (2015). . AIDS Behavior, 19(7), 1361-1365.

Heimer, R., Barbour, R., Palacios, W.R., Nichols, L.G., & Grau, L.E. (2014). . AIDS Behavior, 18(3), 452–463.

Juon, H.-S., Evans-Polce, R.J., & Ensminger, M. (2013). s. American Journal of Public Health, 104(3), 548–554.

Maragh-Bass, A.C., Powell, C., Park, J., Flynn, C. & German, D. (2016). . Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 1-19.

Rowe Ch., Santos, G-M., Vittinghoff, E., Wheeler, E., Davidson, P., & Coffin, P.O. (2016). . Journal of Urban Health, 93, 117.

Rudolph, A.E., Linton, S., Dyer, T.P., & Latkin, C. (2013). . AIDS Behavior, 17(2), 598–611.

Schwartz, R.P., Gryczynski, J., O’Grady, K.E., Sharfstein, J.M., Warren, G., Olsen, Y. … Jaffe. J.H. (2013). . American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 917-922.

Schwartz, R.P., Kelly, S.M., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S.G., O’Grady, K.E., & Jaffe. J.H. (2015). . Journal of Addictive Diseases, 34, 151-161.

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