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How Georgia’s Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens Research Paper


Executive Summary

The history of Georgia dates back from pre-Columbian time to the present. Georgia is an American state, which was originally inhabited by Native Americans. Its history involves the European exploration, British colonization, the American Revolution, the American civil war and reconstruction.

The state was established in 1732 as a trustee colony, and it later became the royal colony (Thomas, 192-195). This colony was originally against slavery, and there were no slaves imported until 1749, when many slaves started to be imported from, Angola, the Gambia and Sierra Leone.

Rules and regulations were adopted in Georgia by 1776, which was considered as the constitution of Georgia. The first president of Georgia was elected in 1788, and in this time, the state ratified the constitution of the United States.

Later on Georgia separated from the United States to join other Southern States to form the confederate states of America history. The history of Georgia has greatly influence the current citizens of this country. The research paper seeks to determine the impact of Georgia’s political, social and religious history to the current citizens.

The impact of Georgia’s history to the current citizens

John Rocker was a baseball player who played for the Atlanta braves, Texas rangers as well as long island ducks. He is a native of Georgia and he earned popularity because of speaking negatively about diversity in New York (Thomas, 192-195).

The people of Georgia are influenced by the country’s political, social, and religious history. John rocker was influenced by the political situations in Georgia, which made him to speak negatively about diversity in New York. This indicates that he is a product of his environment.

He made many allegations based on experiences he had witnessed in the New York City. This is very evident when he was answering questions regarding as to whether he would ever play for New York Yankees or the New York Mets.

His sentiments and responses were considered racist, homophobic and sexist. He said that he did not like New York because of foreigners, and he was wondering how the foreigners entered the country (Thomas, 192-195).

He also talked about his view on the New York Mets and their fans. During this interview, he spat on a Georgia 400 toll machine and teased the Asian women. He also described his black teammate Simon Randall as a monkey.

In 2002, he was accused of directing slurs towards patrons of Dallas hotel where he was dining with his friends. He was not pleased with the diversity in New York. He was a conservative republican who wanted people in New York to speak English.

He campaigned for people in New York to speak English rather than the foreign languages such as Asian, Korean, Vietnamese, Indians and Spanish. He was not happy because of all these foreigners in New York, and that made him to talk negatively about the diversity in New York. This shows that John Rocker was a product of his environment (Numan, 175-180).

In the history of Georgia, this can be attributed to various events, which shows that people are products of their environment. Georgia was a trustee colony, which prohibited slavery this was because the native of Georgia did not want foreigners in their colony.

They were against integration with people from other places especially Africans, and this was a clear indication that they were against diversity in their colony. During the pre Columbia era, the native people lived according to their culture, and they were against cultures from other places.

They established urban societies differentiated with their construction of truncated earthwork pyramid mounds (Kenneth, 321-325). This was also characterized with intensive village based farming, which led to the development of dense populated areas.

Some of the mould building sites are still evident today in Georgia. This indicates that the native people of Georgia were greatly influenced by the environment. During the time of European exploration, Mississippian culture people invaded Georgia.

They traded in iron tools, guns and cloth. These people believed that their culture was the best, and they were products of their environment. During the period of American Revolution, Georgia changed very fast towards republicanism. This enabled the country to oppose monarchy, aristocracy and corruption.

The people of Georgia ordered for the formation of government depending on the will of the people. They did not like taxation without representation.

They spoke about the stamp act and subsequent royal taxes. They were not pleased with way the country was governed and politics at this time greatly influenced their lives. The patriots controlled Georgia and rules and regulations were established. It was no longer a colony, and it became a state with the chief executive.

The white settlers forced the US government to expel Indians from Georgia. Georgia sent many soldiers to battle, and this made the state to shift from cotton production to food production in order to be able to feed soldiers in the war. After the war, many black people in Georgia moved to rural areas to participate in the reconstruction of the city.

In 1868, a constitution convention took place representing all the citizens in Georgia. This action made several white settlers to be very uncomfortable and they greatly rejected the republican administration. They were against cultural diversity as reflected in the case of John Rocker. This shows that they were a product of the environment they were living in (David, 210-213).

They wanted only the whites to be represented but not all the citizens in Georgia. Some of these people became involved in political terrorism in order to sabotage the government’s operations. Others organized and mobilized people to join insurgent paramilitary groups which were against the government. Many cases and assault were reported during this particular time.

The white republicans and the democrats worked together to remove blacks representatives from the general assembly. The white people believed that blacks were not supposed to be represented in Georgia.

The blacks were treated as minority people, and this had a great impact on their lives. This can be likened with john rocker’s case where he called his teammate a monkey. During this time and they were not respected at all by the whites. Today the black citizens in Georgia are still racially abused, and this has affected their lives.

John rocker was a conservative who was not pleased with foreigners coming to New York. In the history of Georgia, it can be noticed that many whites were conservatives and were totally against the republican administration (Andrew, 273-276). Georgia established a convict lease system in the south. This system made the black prisoners to work for individuals and private enterprises without being paid.

They were not protected, and they did not receive any salary for the work done. The white conservatives used these prisoners in railway companies, mines and in other manufacturers. They were used to rapidly increase the industrialization process in Georgia. Reports that the convicts were being overworked were ignored.

The convict continued to be mistreated, and some were murdered in the process. The most beneficiaries of this system were the Georgia’s capitalists such as Joseph Brown who reaped a lot of profit from the system.

The whites in Georgia aimed at establishing social and political dominance at the time of severe agricultural depression. This caused a lot of mob violence, which was directed towards the freed men in Georgia and other confederate states.

Between 1872 and 1890, the democrats dominated in the state politics. Most of these democrats were white. During this time, mob killing increased rapidly, and it averaged more than one killing every month. Most of the people killed in this time were blacks.

The whites denied the blacks their rights to vote until they were completely disenfranchised by using political violence. The African American community could not work in juries, and they were not represented in the local, state and federal levels.

Poll tax was imposed as a voting requirement which locked out the blacks from voting as they were unable to pay the taxes. This affected the black citizens of Georgia as it lasted for more than 60 years into the 20th century. The blacks were urged to become proficient in various fields such as agriculture, mechanic and domestic service.

The black community started attending schools in order to acquire education as much as possible. By this time, nearly 47% of the population constituted of blacks. This made the blacks to fight for voting rights. Black civil right groups fought for the registration of African Americans.

In 1965, a civil right movement enabled the government to pass the voting rights act of 1965.Today in Georgia, the blacks have a right to participate in any election. This has enabled the black people in Georgia to participate in running of the government.

The blacks also moved to the urban areas where they established successful lives as industrial workers (Numan, 175-180). They live there even today, and they are employed in various industries. Religious and social history of Georgia has also played a key role to the lives of the current citizens. Religion prohibited consumption of alcohol in this country.

The woman’s Christian temperance union established a law, which prohibited person in rural counties from drinking. This Union was led by the preachers and women mostly the African Americans. In 1907, the anti-saloon league, which took over from the preachers and women, was very effective. It cut deals with the politicians and established a prohibition law.

However, it had loopholes, which enabled some people to import whisky from other states (Kenneth, 125-127). The prohibition law allowed only saloons, which sold non-alcoholics drinks in Georgia. Coca-Cola Company was bought, and it became one of the most lucrative companies in Georgia. The current citizens of Georgia have been greatly influenced by this history.

Most of liquor companies in this state manufacture non-alcoholic drinks. There are laws that limit alcohol consumption as well as other drugs. Today most of the citizens in Georgia believe in orthodox Christianity (Numan, 175-180). There are also some other religions such as Islam, Armenian apostolic church and roman Catholics.

The Georgian apostolic Orthodox Church is categorized as one of the earliest Christian churches. Apostle Andrew the first called started it in the beginning of 1st century. Christianity was accepted as the state religion in the state of Georgia. This has been a sense of national identity embraced by the people of Georgia for many years. It has enabled Georgia to preserve its national identity based on the history.

It has remained unchanged for a long time despite many foreigners coming to the state and attempted assimilation. Several religious minorities have existed in this country for a long period, and there has been no religious discrimination until today. Such religious minorities include Islam and Jews (Numan, 175-180).

These religions have been there, and the current citizens do not discriminate against them. These ceremonies were still carried out in the ancient time. Various religions have coexisted with Georgian orthodoxy. For instance, a number of people throughout the country practices Judaism, which has existed since the old days.

It is mostly practiced in the largest cities in Georgia such as Tbilisi and Kutaisi. Today most of the citizens in Georgia practice Christianity. This can be attributed to Georgia’s Christianity history. Georgia is the second earliest Christian county after Armenia (Thomas, 180-182). The conversion of Georgia into Christianity was the effort of Saint Nino of Cappadocia who was a daughter of pious and noble parents.

The Georgian Orthodox Church was derived from the original church of Antioch. The Christian church in Georgia played a very significant role in the establishment of a written language. Currently the people living in Georgia use this language today.

In the early 1970s, opposing leaders criticized the Georgian church because of corruption. Later on, new order and morality was brought to the church, which helped in reviving it (David, 210-213).

In the 20th century, religious identity in Georgia was incorporated into the strong nationalist movement. In 1988, most churches were consecrated and reopened. A large scale restoration of churches took place in Georgia by this time. Most of the citizens in the current Georgia believe in Christianity.

They attend churches on Sunday, and this has been influenced by the religious history of Georgia (Kenneth, 125-127). Many churches have been constructed due to increase in population of people going to church. Christianity is also taught in schools to make children to understand Christianity and its history. Islam was introduced in Georgia in the ancient times.

It continued to spread during the 14th and 15th centuries because of Timurs invasion of Georgia. The Muslim community in Georgia is relatively smaller in numbers as compared to Christianity. The muslim groups are the Georgian ethnic Muslims and the ethnic Azerbaijani Muslims. The Muslim religion is still in existence in Georgia today.

They are dispersed in Georgia and other neighboring countries. Their existence in Georgia can be attributed to the religious history in this state. The Jews have also been living in Georgia for a number of years (David, 210-213). Today there is a small number of Jews in Georgia, and they live in Tbilisi.

These minority religious groups are not discriminated in Georgia, and the constitution of this country provides freedom of religion. Social history has also influence the people of Georgia. Georgian society and its people were portrayed in the novels written by recognized writers such as Mary Shelley and Henry Fielding.

The paintings done by various artists demonstrated the changing world of the Georgian period. The work of earlier designers is still applied today in Georgia. The building designs used to day in Georgia dates back from several decades ago.

This can be seen in poetry, which was characterized with colorful language. Social reforms, which were fought for by politicians, have brought about radical changes in various areas. They helped in the abolition of slaves, prison reforms and social justices.

These social reforms have helped in shaping the social life of the current citizens. Philanthropists and writers fought against social ills and helped in starting hospitals, Sunday schools and orphanage.

The textiles collection of the Georgian people can be traced back in early days. Most of clothes and costumes used today have been developed from those that were designed several years ago (Buddy, 193-195). The daily and occasion clothing that represent Georgia were designed many years ago (Arnold, 78-82). Furnishing textiles and other personal accessories can be attributed to history.

Textile production is represented by weaving machines and sewing patterns. Personal clothes such as dress for men, women and children are because of what was designed in the early days. Personal accessories such as shoes, hats and jewelry have also some historical attributes. All these are highlighted in the history center’s textile holding. Most of the items are produced from silk and wool.

The social history has greatly influenced the lives of Georgian citizens in terms of dressing and other social issues. People of Georgia can be identified based on linguistic traditions and the ethnic linguistic groups. Georgia comprise of several ethnic groups such as Armenians, Greeks, Kurds among others. Such groups speak different languages (Kenneth, 321-325).

However, some ethnic groups speak Georgian as a native language. Such ethnic groups include the Jews. These groups have their own cultural identity although their long stay in Georgia influenced them. Georgia is made up of small regional cultural entities with different believes and cultural values. They have different dressing code, customs, and folklore and speak different languages.

Most of these groups have maintained their traditions, which have enabled Georgia to preserve its national identity. Most of the citizens in Georgia live in the urban centre. The population of Georgia has greatly increased due to emigration by the ethnic minorities. Most of the people speak Georgian although some groups speak other languages.

The Georgian language came from the south Caucasian language group. The main language spoken in Georgia today was used in the historically dominant western kingdom of kartli. There are also some minority languages such as Armenian, Abkhazian, Azeri, and Russian.

All these minority languages can be attributed to historical emigration in Georgia. Today these groups still exist in Georgia, and they speak the minority languages. This has had an impact on the Georgian language because in some places it is diluted (James, 112-114). The Christians in Georgia have been greatly influenced by Muslims in the neighboring areas.

Today, most of the cultural values and believes are based on social history belonging to the Georgian community. Cultural unity is common among different cultural groups that live in Georgia.

Christianity became a state religion in this country during the era of king martin III who was directed by Saint Nino of Cappadocia. The alphabet used today by the Georgian people was design in the ancient times. In 1453, Georgia became the first Christian stronghold to be established in the region of Muslim kingdom.

In 19th century, the Russian empire united the country and that unity is still in existence today (Buddy, 193-195). A social democratic government ruled republican of Georgia, which embraced social history. The country has different groups of people who speak different languages.

These groups were united during the reign of King Parnavaz, and they have remained together until today. There has been a gradual assimilation of the ethnic groups, which has brought about religious unity and unification (Andrew, 273-276).

Conclusion

The political, social and religious history of Georgia has a very significant impact to the lives of people living in this country today. Most of religious and social practices carried out today can be traced back from the ancient Georgia.

History has transformed Georgia to what it is today. The current nation is as a result of political, social and religious history. For many centuries, most of the ethnic groups in Georgia have preserved their cultural identities enabling the country to maintain its national identity.

Most of these groups have common cultural identities, which have reduced the chances of cultural conflicts. Despite some little tensions between Abkhaz and Ossetians, today there is harmony among different groups in Georgia.

Most of the churches built today in Georgia are mostly replicas of the old historical churches. Urban architecture has strong traces of soviet influences (Kenneth, 125-127). Building designs used today in Georgia resembles the historical building designs.

Most food taken in the country includes traditional food such as meat and fruits. Georgia’s political, social and religious history has played a significant role to the current citizens. Most of activities and practices are based on political, social and religious history of the country. As in the case of john rocker, it can be concluded that every person is a product of his environment.

Bibliography

Numan, Bartley. The creation of modern Georgia. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2003.Print

James, Cobb. Georgia. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008.Print

Kenneth, Coleman. A history of Georgia. Athens: University of GeorgiaPress, 2001. Print

Kenneth, Coleman. Colonial Georgia:A history. West Virginia: University of Virginia, 2007.Print

Arnold, Fleischmann. Politics in Georgia. New York: University of Georgia Press, 2007.Print

Andrew, Manis. Macon Black and White:An unutterable seperation in the American century.New York: Mercer University Press, 2004.Print

Thomas, Scott. Cornerstones of Georgia history. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1995.Print

Thomas, Scott. Georgia and the origins of the suburban South:A twentieth-century history. Marietta: Cobb Landmarks and Historical Society, 2008.Print

Buddy, Sullivian. Georgia:A state history. New York: Arcadia Publishing, 2010.Print

David, Williams. From mounds to megachurches:Georgia’s religious Heritage. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008.Print

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Kyler Wise studied at Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, with average GPA 3.19 out of 4.0.

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Wise, K. (2019, December 8). How Georgia's Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-georgias-political-social-and-religious-history-has-played-a-role-on-its-current-citizens/

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Wise, Kyler. "How Georgia's Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens." IvyPanda, 8 Dec. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/how-georgias-political-social-and-religious-history-has-played-a-role-on-its-current-citizens/.

1. Kyler Wise. "How Georgia's Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens." IvyPanda (blog), December 8, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-georgias-political-social-and-religious-history-has-played-a-role-on-its-current-citizens/.


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Wise, Kyler. "How Georgia's Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens." IvyPanda (blog), December 8, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-georgias-political-social-and-religious-history-has-played-a-role-on-its-current-citizens/.

References

Wise, Kyler. 2019. "How Georgia's Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens." IvyPanda (blog), December 8, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-georgias-political-social-and-religious-history-has-played-a-role-on-its-current-citizens/.

References

Wise, K. (2019) 'How Georgia's Political, Social, and Religious History has Played A Role on its Current Citizens'. IvyPanda, 8 December.

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