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Human Trafficking Problems in Canada Annotated Bibliography


De Shalit, Ann, et al. “Human Trafficking and Media Myths: Federal Funding, Communication Strategies, and Canadian Anti-Trafficking Programs.” Canadian Journal of Communication, vol. 39, no. 3, 2014. pp. 385-412.

The article by De Shalit et al. is a relevant source for investigating the problem of human trafficking in Canada. It is entitled “Human Trafficking and Media Myths: Federal Funding, Communication Strategies, and Canadian Anti-Trafficking Programs.” As its name suggests, the primary objectives of the article are to describe the fundamental points that are associated with the crime of human trafficking and strategies for monitoring the processes related to this crime. The article is divided into a few sections that are each nevertheless rather extensive. The authors describe the government’s influence on the level of human trafficking and argue that the concept of slavery is almost the same as modern human trafficking (De Shalit et al. 391). The principles by which appropriate funding levels are determined for investigating cases of human trafficking also fall within the scope of issues examined by the article. De Shalit et al. also describe the involvement of non-governmental organizations and their impact on improving certain provisions of human trafficking law (405). Media strategies are also presented as a generally successful method of combating modern slavery in all its manifestations.

The data that is presented in the article is directly relevant to the topic of human trafficking and can be used as a generally reliable source of information. The activities of non-governmental organizations are often necessary for the process of uncovering crimes related to human trafficking. It is not always easy for law enforcement agencies to have a complete awareness of all cases where people are illegally detained for their exploitation. Because of this, the work carried out by non-governmental organizations provides substantial assistance to the authorities and can play a significant role in solving these issues.

As De Shalit et al. note, the Criminal Code of Canada also overlaps with the work of these organizations, and sometimes the government can rely on these groups’ help when sponsoring their activities by the established budget (407). Therefore such organizations can be beneficial. Their efforts are likely to be connected not only with the search for potential criminals but also other activities, for example, identifying the most dangerous sectors of society, monitoring activity on the labor market, etc. Perhaps, if it were not for these organizations, the situation in the country would be even more complicated. Thus the influence of non-governmental organizations on the protection of people in Canada can be considered justified and used as an argument in their favor.

Hastie, Bethany, and Alison Yule. “Milestone or Missed Opportunity: A Critical Analysis of the Impact of Domotor on the Future of Human Trafficking Cases in Canada.” Appeal: Rev. Current L. & L. Reform, vol. 19, no. 1, 2014, pp. 83-93.

The article written by Hastie and Yule is entitled “Milestone or Missed Opportunity: A Critical Analysis of the Impact of Domotor on the Future of Human Trafficking Cases in Canada.” The authors describe a case that occurred in Canada in 2011 and is now known as the Domotor case (Hastie and Yule 84). It was connected to the most extensive exposure of a large human trafficking ring in the history of Canada. The case of Domotor was not associated with sexual exploitation but instead involved the sale of people as a cheap labor force. Men were brought from Hungary and on arrival in Canada, their documents were taken away and they were forced to work practically for free. At the same time, these people’s living conditions were utterly unsanitary as they had to sleep in dirty barracks. The authors note that the perpetrators in the Domotor case were accused of several offenses, including illegal trafficking in human beings, violations of working conditions, etc. (Hastie and Yule 86). This event led to one of the most significant court cases in Canada, which involved charges against the people accused of these crimes.

This article is directly relevant to the topic under investigation, as it affects one of the most famous Canadian court cases related to human trafficking. To establish the seriousness of the crimes committed, Hastie and Yule cite the provisions of the authoritative document for such matters, the Criminal Code, which provides for penalties and determines a crime’s gravity (88). Even though such a severe crime was solved, it does not mean that the problem of human trafficking ceased to be relevant. While criminals probably are less active today, it is impossible to claim that trafficking has been destroyed.

The Domotor case raised essential issues and questions regarding Canada’s Temporary Resident Permit (TRP) program for trafficked persons (Hastie and Yule 92). According to this program, those people who were victims of human trafficking can receive several advantages from the state, including the possibility of remaining in the country, assistance with housing, etc. Thus successful measures to capture a large gang of criminals marked the beginning of a serious national struggle for employees’ freedom in Canada and helped many people to regain their freedom. The article’s findings are backed by careful arguments and can be of use in further research.

Kaye, Julie, and Bethany Hastie. “The Canadian Criminal Code Offence of Trafficking in Persons: Challenges from the Field and Within the Law.” Social Inclusion, vol. 3, no. 1, 2015, pp. 88-102.

The scholarly article written by Kaye and Hastie is entitled “The Canadian Criminal Code Offence of Trafficking in Persons: Challenges from the Field and within the Law.” This article examines one of the most important Canadian documents that determine the procedure and degree of punishment for criminal offenses (Kaye and Hastie 88). Human trafficking plays a significant role in this code and is treated as one of the most serious criminal offenses in terms of legal punishment. The authors mention amendments to the document that have been recently adopted to improve some points of the code (Kaye and Hastie 95). The article also provides a detailed definition of what human trafficking is and of what components this crime consists, and what organizations are involved in investigating specific issues. Also, Kaye and Hastie describe some of the limitations that the Criminal Code has and explain that many of them are conditioned by a democratic society’s conventions (96). There are no examples of criminal cases investigated by the provisions of the Code.

The use of information from this article can be important for the current study since the data presented describe in detail all the legislative procedures that are necessary when assessing the gravity of various crimes. Human trafficking is a criminal offense; therefore the Criminal Code is the basic document regulating the legal aspects of this crime and the consequences that it entails. Perhaps the limitations and obstacles described by Kaye and Hastie could be considered by the government to change the situation for the better (95). The democratic structure of society sometimes does not allow for carrying out investigations to the fullest degree, and some conventions interfere with the investigative process. For example, without a sufficient evidentiary basis, it is impossible to hold a person or a group of people accountable for forcibly imprisoning someone. Even if much relevant and useful evidence is collected, it may not be enough. Thus the use of this article for further research is fully justified by its detailed descriptions of the Criminal Code’s provisions.

It is important to not only take into account the provisions of the Criminal Code but also to assess in advance whether a certain crime can be regarded as particularly dangerous. Nevertheless, the authors argue that proposals for the revision of certain sections of the Criminal Code can be made (98). If this is so, the government probably needs to pay attention to some issues. It is necessary to provide sufficient arguments in favor of the need for specific amendments. In the case of such a dangerous and serious crime as human trafficking, it is essential to bring about improvements. For example, providing investigators easier access in case of suspicion of human trafficking can help catch the criminals faster and relieve the suffering of the unfortunate victims. Surely no conventions should prevent the judicial system from helping people who are in trouble or bringing to justice those who deserve it.

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