Employment opportunities in the modern world are often limited, and one of the factors that affect this problem is social division. It is the question of foreign citizens who quite often face the problem of unemployment and are compelled to be arranged on unprofitable posts in order to earn for living. According to Caliendo, the issue of immigration is particularly acute in developed countries where people come to find good conditions for life and try to stay in permanent residence (117). This situation is quite typical for the modern labor market, where many emigrants are involved in low-paid and often labor-intensive work.
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Nevertheless, the author did not indicate the reasons why both young and adult people were forced to leave their home countries and go abroad in pursuit of a better life. Certainly, the search for a promising new job is a rather natural desire for an ambitious and purposeful person. However, employment outside the home country, as a rule, is not because of a desire to succeed abroad but to find at least anyways of earning money.
Accordingly, the following question is quite logical: why do people leave their native countries and are purposefully looking for new ways of earning money, quite often even not in prestigious positions? Such a problem should definitely be investigated more deeply as today, this question is very relevant, and many governments still cannot solve the issue of diversion of people from one country and too much filling the labor market in others. Moreover, even in highly developed countries, the number of vacancies is, as a rule, limited, and not everyone can receive a good job. Therefore, it may be important to solve the problem not from the point of view of prohibiting entry but concerning the possibility of correcting the current situation in those countries from which people leave.
This problem is quite urgent and is considered by different authors. For example, Wacquant also describes such a question and claims that discrimination and competition among immigrants is a typical phenomenon in modern society, and the reasons for this problem lie in the overcrowding of the labor market (208). Wacquant partially repeats the ideas of Caliendo but pays more attention to the difficulties faced by immigrants in finding jobs and notes that the rise of this phenomenon is caused by insufficiently effective domestic policies of some countries (209). Therefore, appropriate measures should be taken to partially resolve such a question; otherwise, the situation will be even more aggravated.
Caliendo, Stephen M. Inequality in America: Race, Poverty, and Fulfilling Democracy’s Promise. 2nd ed., Westview Press, 2017.
Wacquant, Loïc. Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Oxford University Press, 1990.