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Early Stage of Walking Patterns Report (Assessment)

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Updated: May 4th, 2022

The study will evaluate early walking patterns. The study of infant walking experience will improve child-rearing practices. Infant walking abilities are influenced by the development of motor skills. However, motor skill development is influenced by different subcomponents. Some subcomponents include body coordination, routine exercise, diaper use, and head control. As infants grow, the components which facilitate walking patterns adapt to body changes. Such development could influence early independent walk. Infant motor development starts with hand crawling to knee crawl (Vereijken, Pedersen & Størksen, 2009). Thus, the independent walking experience is a sign of early motor development. We will study the relationship between induced changes and walking patterns.

Research question

  1. Can independent walking infants carry load on their shoulders and around the wrist?
  2. What is the effect of infant walking experience?
  3. What is the effect of load position on motor development?

Fifteen infants were used as the sample population. The sample population had 7 boys and 8 girls, respectively. Workloads were placed in different positions on the infant’s shoulder, ankle, and around the wrist. Participants for the research were white Norwegian babies. The experimenter informed parents about the study, and the research conformed to Helsink Declaration. Data were collected using phone contacts. Parents provided a progress report on their baby’s motor skill development.

The independent walk used in this paper refers to 5 independent steps. Once the baby could make 5 independent walks, he or she was assigned a record tag. Due to disruptions and holidays, the experimental data was not completed. Adhesive materials were placed on each participant. The adhesives provided support for the load attached to the infant’s shoulders. Adhesive tapes were placed around the wrist by the experimenter to analyze motor skill development. Parents could withdraw their baby once 5 independent steps were completed. The weight of the support pack was 375g, while the packs placed on the ankles weighed 750g. Routine trials were repeated 8 times.

Parents motioned their baby during each trial, and the experimenter documented the results. Trials were repeated when the participant fell, stopped, or walked away from the experimental line. Coding instruments include success, fall, refusal, and pause. The results were accepted by a consensus confirmation.

To analyze the results, we separated trial secessions using the coding guide. Trial result codded as pause was removed from the analysis. We observed a change in the trial pattern from the first trial section to the final trial. Participants showed progressive development after repeated trials. Unsuccessful trials such as refusal and pause were analyzed to determine the reasons for failure. Infants refused to walk during the first and second weeks of trials. Participants who did not complete their trials during the first week of trials performed better after repeated sessions. At the end of the exercise, participants scored 100% walking experience. We observed a change in walking speed during the trials.

While analyzing the results, we observed that infant’s motor development, improved with routine experience. From the analysis, load perturbation influenced the gait parameters. To answer the first research question, the analysis confirmed the ability of infants to carry the load during the independent walking phase. Although most infants fell during the first trial session, they had similar performance without carrying a load. Thus, gait parameters significantly influenced the infant’s independent walking experience. The gait patterns of participants improved with routine walking experience. Infants changed their walking pattern with more routine exercises (Vereijken, Pedersen & Størksen, 2009). The load position significantly influenced the walking pattern of infants.

Access your knowledge section

  1. How many infants participated in the experiment? Answer = Fifteen infants
  2. The selection team accepted 5 independent walking steps by infants. True or false.

Go naked: Diapers affect infant walking

Infants develop walk experience through motor skills. Diapers constitute posture problems for infants. The research on child rearing reveals an imbalance between the legs of infants. Infants using diapers show poor gait movements than infants walking naked. Thus, an experimental research to ascertain the effect of diapers on infants showed significant impairment. Child rearing pattern influences their development. Motor skill development is influenced by age, care, and routine exercise (Cole, Lingeman & Adolph, 2012).

Routine learning exercises in sitting, standing and walking posture are used during child rearing. Child rearing requires a systematic plan to facilitate early development of infant motor skill. Motor development can delay or eliminate infant crawl phase. Thus, diaper elimination during child rearing will develop their motor skills. The experimental survey between naked infants and diaper wearing infants will be correlated in this paper. The study will assist caregivers to monitor, provided and develop routine exercise to facilitate infant motor development (Cole, Lingeman & Adolph, 2012).

We will analyze the effect of naked infants, cloth, and disposable diapers on infant’s motor development. To examine the relationship between motor developments and walking experience, we will examine two sample populations. The sample populations are infants between 13 and 19 months-old. The experimenter will monitor the gait development of naked, disposable, and cloth wearing infants.

Research questions

  1. What factors are responsible for motor development in infants?
  2. What factors affect motor development?
  3. Do caregivers require a routing exercise to improve infant development?

Two sets of the sample population were tested. Each set comprised of 30 babies of 13 and 19 months-old. Samples were randomly taken from a predominantly white population. Data collected for 19 months-old infants were discontinued due to irritable feelings. Participants were divided by class and age. 27% of the population walked naked during the experiments, while 73% of the 19 months-old infants have walking experience.

The participants could walk repeatedly using different instruments of the experiment. Instruments used for the experiment include disposable diapers, cloth diapers and walking naked. Repeated trials were conducted on a covered walkway measuring 5.73m by 0.92m. The experiment was repeated when infants fell, veered off or stopped walking. Trials were conducted six times per diaper condition. The experimenter recorded the length and height of the infant’s legs. The coding parameter includes unsupported falls, missteps and double steps. Thus, the sections marred with errors were excluded from the sample results. We codded and documented the gait results after repeated trials. Three infants who did not complete their trials were excluded from the result. The experimenter used Gait software to compute step width, length, and walking speed. Motor development determines an early walk by infants.

Results indicated gait disruptions with the 13 months-old infants. Infants with disposable diapers showed no sign of misstep, while 10 naked infants fluttered. Infants with cloth diapers recorded slight difference. However, the sample B population showed steady development. The pattern of disruption, improved with routine exercise. Gait disruptions among the sample population decreased after days of routine experience. Gait disruptions were computed using the generalized estimating equation model.

The records show no significant correlation between diaper condition and infants age. Effects of walking experience were significant. Naked infants walked straight with little space between their legs, while infants with cloth and disposable diapers had wider spaces between their legs.

The result indicates significant influence of diapers on the motor development of infants. Disruptive pattern of infants can be measured by walking routine. While the sample population showed signs of impairment, diapers significantly altered the walking patterns of infants. Infants with diapers took wider steps than naked infants. Infants walking naked required lesser routine exercise during trials, while 13 months-old infants wearing diapers continued the routine exercise weeks after the trials. Using gait maturity as an instrument of measure, infants with disposable or cloth diapers displayed inconsistent steps during the walking sessions.

Thus, we can explain the reasons for diaper impairment. Diaper design affects the development of infant’s motor skill. Infants with dirty diapers showed signs of impairment while walking. It accounts for wider base angle noticed during the experiment. Dirty diapers will inhibit motor development and restrain motor development. While other factors such as dress pattern and posture could slow motor development in infants, child care givers can argue the case against diapers.

Access your knowledge section

  1. What are the ages of infants used for the experiment? Answer = 13 and 19 months-old infant.
  2. List the coding instrument for the experiment. Answer = Naked infants, cloth and disposable diapers.

References

Cole W., Lingeman J., & Adolph K. (2012).Go naked: Diapers affect infant walking. New York, USA: Department of Psychology, New York University. Web.

Vereijken B., Pedersen A., & Størksen J. (2009). Early independent walking: A longitudinal study of load perturbation effects. Trondheim, Norway: Faculty of Social Sciences, Norwegian University. Web.

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