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Intelligence Report


Introduction

Intelligence defined as a general measure of mental ability. David Wechsler developed intelligence tests which are widely used.He also defined intelligent as the capability to persistently think reasonably and come up with ways of solving problems that exist in their surroundings.

The term intelligence quotient is derived from German intelligenz- quotient. Alfred Binet a French psychologist founded the first experimental laboratory research in 19th century and developed experimental technique s of measuring intelligent and reasoning ability (Ceci & Liker, 1986).

He believed intelligence could be determined by evaluating persons reasoning, judgement, and problem solving abilities. Modern Intelligence quotient testing was pioneered by Albert Binet and Theodore Simone in (1905), they develop a series of tasks to be performed by average intellectual children of different ages.

Intelligent test is a measure of intelligence quotient of a person. The tests contain several scales assessing qualitative intellectual functioning of a student through performance of various tasks (Neisser et al., 1996).

Theoretically, intelligent quotient is a standardized test constructed by the psychologist as a way of describing ones intelligent level. Intelligence test is frequently used as basis for decision making about the placement in education, admission of specific groups and eligibility of various services.

Intelligent test can be used to determine an individual’s cognitive functioning, aptitude, thinking skills, intellectual ability and the general ability of an individual (Reeve & Hakel, 2002).

Development of the Intelligent Quotient Test

This work entailed a development of an intelligence quotient assessment test for students entering university. Intelligent test have it root from a general field of psychology and measurement. There are two test widely used to assess intellectually ability as designed by the Wechsler.

For students who are older than 16 years, the Wechsler Adult Intelligent (WAIS) is used while for students less than 16 years, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for children (WISC) is used. Research extends to standardization of the IQ as it focuses on the Wechsler scale subtests as measure adult intelligence, which is university student age between 19 to 24 years old.

David Wechsler in full revised the recent intelligence scale which known as Wechsler – Bellevue intelligence scale to modern Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV are named after him (WAIS – IV). He incorporated subtests and score as way of examining intelligence in more in- depth.

Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scales was later revised to (WAIS III) due to earlier criticism hence making it more effective in testing general intelligence. It updated the norm that in every tens years people get higher scores.

The (WAIS) is composed of four major scores, these are: verbal comprehension index, the perceptual reasoning index, working memory index, and processing speed index.

These index scores have mean of one hundred and standard deviation of fifteen. Verbal comprehension index is general measure of verbal skills which entails assessing verbal fluency, understanding ability and verbal knowledge.

Perceptual organization index: this measure non verbal thinking and coordination in visual motor, integration of visual stimuli, and none verbal reasoning. It examines problem draw from visual- spatial skill, thought organized and creating solution as well as testing them. They are also able to solve problem not taught in school.

Working memory index: This refers to an assessment used to determine new information memorized, stored in short term memory, concentrate, and processing of the information which result to reasoning.

Working memory is an active process and a brain work space in which the information is temporary stored before is synthesized. Working memory includes arithmetic and digit span as items to be measured (Ackerman, 1988).

Processing speed index: This measures the fastness of response; it shows the ability to solve a series of non verbal problems. It is associated to reading, memory skill, and mathematical.

The above indexes are summarized to form a broad score which is referred as full scale IQ.The processing speed index include: digit symbol- coding and symbol search as item to be measured.

The Respondents to the Test

The test above is meant to measure the intellectual ability of undergraduate’s university student of age between 19 to 24 years old. The respondent comprises of both sex.

The respondent should be visually literate that is they should not be impaired. The respondent should be of different ages. The respondents need to be independent when doing the test.

Validating the Test

To validate the developed tests, criterion validation and congruent validation methods will be used. The developed test will be given to student at different educational levels such as undergraduate student and the master student.

If the two score correlate and lie between margins, this will suggest that the test is valid and if it doesn’t correlate this will mean the test is not valid and the item need to adjusted

Congruent validation; in this validation method, the result obtained from developed test will be correlated with other IQ test. It is expected that result obtained from this test will be closely related to the other IQ test. If the test shows a great difference, the items will be revised (Brody,1997).

Checking the Reliability Test

To check the reliability of the developed IQ test, three techniques will be used, these include: split – half reliability, test – retest reliability, and parallel– form reliability.

Split – Half Test

In this technique, the developed test will be given to two different groups of student. The test result obtained from the two groups will be correlated and if the two tests are the same, the test is reliable. On other hand, if the test score are different this means that the test is not reliable and the items need to be adjusted for future use.

Parallel – Form Reliability

In this reliability method the result obtained from the parallel groups test taken by the student will be closely correlated and if the test score are high this will mean there is reliability and the test can be used in future, on other hand if the test is low this mean there no reliability and the items needed be to revised.

Test – Retest Reliability

Two tests will be given to students at different intervals. The score from the first test will be compared to the score of the second test. If the score between the two tests are closely correlated, it will show that the test is reliable. If not, the tests are not reliable and the instruments need to be changed.

References

Ackerman, L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 117(1), 299–318.

Brody, N. (1997). Intelligence, schooling and society. American Psychologist, 52(1),1046–1050.

Ceci, J. & Liker, J. (1986). A day at the races: A study of IQ, expertise, and cognitive complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 255–266.

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T.J., Boykin, A.W., Brody, N., Ceci, S.J.,

Halpern, D.F., Loehlin, J.C., Perloff, R., Sternberg, R.J. & Urbina, S. (1996).Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 77–101.

Reeve, C. L., & Hakel, M. D. (2002). Asking the right questions about g. Human Performance, 15(1-2), 47-74.

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IvyPanda. "Intelligence." June 18, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/intelligence-2/.

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IvyPanda. 2019. "Intelligence." June 18, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/intelligence-2/.

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IvyPanda. (2019) 'Intelligence'. 18 June.

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