Wages and working hours in Thailand
The labor market laws in Thailand are based on the “Thai Labour Protection Act of 1998”. The legislation stipulates the employees’ and employers’ rights in working environments. These include wages and salaries, overtime, working hours, leaves, and other basic workers’ rights. All business and nonbusiness organizations have the legal obligation of strictly following the legislation. The “Department of Labour Protection and Welfare”, a department in the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, has the responsibility of enforcing and administering labor-related laws. The legislation applies to all employees and employers in the country.
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The law has specific guidelines on the working hour’s regulations. The standard working hours for a worker in Thailand are a maximum of 48 hours per week, that is, eight working hours per day. However, in occupations that are considered hazardous, the working hours can be a maximum of 7 seven hours per day. Additionally, employees are entitled to one hour, and one day rest every day and week respectively (International Business Publications, 2007).
Employees are also entitled to overtime pay, but the employer should obtain prior consent to work overtime from the employee. Employees are also entitled to paid public holidays (minimum of 13 annually), annual leave, sick leave, and maternity leave. There are also laws that govern the minimum wages depending on the location. For example, the minimum wage in Bangkok is 175 baht per day (about 4.38 US dollars) while in some provinces, the minimum wage per day is 137 baht (3.43 US dollars). Employees are also entitled to workmen’s compensation which varies depending on the injury suffered (International Business Publications, 2007).
In my own opinion, the wages and working hour’s laws in Thailand are ethical since they take care of the welfare of both the employee and employer. Moreover, they are concurrent with international labor laws (August, Mayer, & Bixby, 2009).
Environmental regulation in Thailand
To avert the environmental problems in Thailand, there are laws that have over the years been enacted by the government. Environmental regulations and laws in the country can be traced back to the mid-1970s when the Improvement and Conservation of Environmental National Quality Act were enacted. The law formed the National Environmental Board whose mandate was to address the environmental issues affecting the country.
This involved the formulation and implementation of environmental policies as well as environmental standards and monitoring systems (Harding, 2008). Towards the end of the 20th century, more environmental management concerns were raised which led to the enactment of the “Enhancement and Conservation of National Environment Quality Act of 1992”. There are other legislations that were enacted in the 1990s that have a direct impact on environmental management and regulations. Some of the most important acts include the Factory Act and the Energy Conservation Promotion Act.
There are several factors that have necessitated the need for the amendment of environment management laws in Thailand. This includes the rapid industrialization and urbanization as well as the increased population in the country over the last two decades (Harding, 2008). Generally, Thailand has very adequate and sufficient environmental regulations.
Wages and working hours in Singapore
Singapore has very strict legislations that govern the labor laws. The laws are contained in the employment act which gives guidelines on what is required by law in any employment contract. This includes the working hours, duties and responsibilities, wages and salaries, and employment contract termination. However, there is no minimum wage in Singapore. Nonetheless, the employee has a legal obligation of paying his or her employment at the right time, at least once every month.
The law has provisions that regulate the working hours in the country but is only applicable to employees with a monthly salary of 2000 SGD or less. These works are required to work for a maximum of eight hours in a day, with a break after every six hours. Other employees can work for more hours, which is dependent on the agreement between the employee and the employer. The employees are also entitled to annual leave, sick leave, public holidays, and health insurance (HRM Asia, 2010). These laws have been effective in promoting ethical human resources management, which is consistent with international norms.
Environmental regulation in Singapore
Although there are no constitutional provisions in relation to environmental management, Singapore has some legal frameworks in the management of the environment and natural resources. Moreover, there are no mandatory legal requirements that require organizations to carry out environmental impact assessments. The laws related to environmental protection and management in Singapore are scattered in a number of legislations and legal provisions.
Thus, some activists have argued that there are no specific and precise laws in Singapore that have been enacted to deal with emerging challenges in environmental pollution and degradation. Nonetheless, there are some laws, such as the Energy Conservation Act of 2012 and the National Environment Agency Act, which are very relevant in environmental regulation (Kititasnasorchai & Tasneeyanond, 2000).
Although it can be argued that there are no sufficient environmental regulations and laws in Singapore, there have been numerous attempts by the government to reduce and control environmental degradation. For example, the implementation of the Singapore Green Plan has been very effective (Shiau, n. d).
August, R., Mayer, D., & Bixby, M. (2009). International business law: text, cases, and readings (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
BSA Law, (2008). Thai Labor Law. Web.
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Harding, A. (2008). Access to environmental justice: a comparative. Leiden: Nijhoff.
HRM Asia. (2010). Minimum statutory terms Termination of employment Discrimination and harassment Occupational health and safety Regulation of outsourcing and contracting Industrial relations. Web.
International Business Publications (2007). Thailand Country Study Guide. Woshington D.C.: International Business Publications.
Kititasnasorchai, V. & Tasneeyanond, P. (2000). Thai Environment Law. Singapore Journal of International & comparative law, 4, 1-35.
Shiau, D. (n.d). Environmental Law in Singapore: The Role of Non-Government Organisations (NGOs). Web.