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Inventions and Discoveries Research Paper


Invention can be defined as a final result of imagination which could have originated from a mere conception or from experimental researches. Discovery on the other hand is initial or primary acquisition of a given idea or information by an individual.

As invention gives credit to the person who performed the act as the actual source of the conception, discovery is a credit to any other person who comes across an idea for the first time with respect to himself or herself. Invention is therefore a special primary discovery. This paper seeks to discuss some of the significant discoveries that were made as a result of the inventions of the telescope and the microscope.

The paper will look into the history of the discoveries and their effects in the development of the human well beings as well as the enhancement of the human understanding of the surrounding nature in terms of changing the traditions and the society.

Discoveries due to Invention of the Microscope

The invention of microscope occurred in the sixteenth century. Believed to have been invented in Netherlands, the technology of the microscope was developed over time by the improvement on the lenses and other features of the microscope.

Some of the significant discoveries made through the use of microscopes include the discovery of yeast fungus by Louis Pasteur and the discovery of cells that led to the cell theory (Microscopy, n.d).

The Discovery of Yeast Fungus

The discovery of yeast fungus is attributed to Louis Pasteur who was a French national. Born in the year 1822, Louis was schooled to advanced levels of education even though most of his teachers didn’t think of him as worth the higher levels of education. Louis Pasteur was the first personality to lay down the foundation of fermentation.

He illustrated in his discovery the process by which yeast aids the process in which alcohol can be obtained from sugar. In his discovery, Louis disapproved the initial perception that the process of brewing alcohol from sugar was a purely a chemical process rather than a biological process.

In the discovery, he demonstrated that yeast is living organisms that can undertake a process of anaerobic respiration that yields fermentation (Science, 2011).

The discovery made by Louis that established yeast as the driving engine behind the brewing of alcohol changed the traditional perception that the brewing process was chemical. It had been previously assumed and believed that the process of brewing alcohol was primarily a chemical reaction.

The assumption of the chemical process in the conversion of sugar into alcohol subsequently covered a lot of risks that alcohol exposed people to as a result of its bacterial components. In the discovery, it was realized that the fermentation process was infested by a number of disease causing micro organisms that included bacteria, fungi and a number of yeast species.

As a result of the presence of disease causing organism in the fermentation process, steps were taken by another scientist to eliminate these organisms from yeast. The success of this elimination strategy allowed for a brewing process that was free from the micro organisms apart from the yeast.

There were further studies and successes in the refining of the fermentation process which was fueled by Louis’ discovery of the yeast as the basis of fermentation. The move saw the development of the brewing industry and the elimination of disease causing organisms as components of alcohol.

By so doing, the discovery by Louis improved the welfare of people by setting a stage upon which their health was taken care of. The elimination of the bacteria and the other organisms from yeast and further developments of the brewing process had the positive effects of eliminating the diseases and medical complications that were caused by these micro organisms.

The discovery of the yeast further led to development of the knowledge of the biological sector of micro organisms and the subject of anaerobic respiration (Khachatourians and Arora, 2002).

The Discovery of Cells and the Cell Theory

The discovery of cells was made by an English man called Robert Hook. Hook, after designing and upon using a microscope, made an observation in 1665 of substances whose composition he expressed as numerous little boxes. He named the little boxes as cells derived from the Latin meaning of “little room”.

The discovery made by Hook broke the traditional belief that had existed among people that human body is one whole and uniform substance. Hook on the contrary brought people to the realization that a human body is made up of small tiny substances called cells. It has further been established that cells are the primary building elements of organisms (Crown, 2003).

The discovery of cells, after a number of studies led to the establishment of the cell theory. The concept of the cell theory explained that “organisms are composed of similar units of organization called cells” (Meisler, 2006, p. 1). Having its history from as early as 1838, the theory described the cell as distinct element with its own features and as a component of a bigger structure which is the organism.

The cell theory established the facts that living organisms are composed of these elementary cells, that the cells in the organisms are both structural elements and functional components of the organisms; cells are genetic with features that are transmitted during cell division and that the cells have similar composition.

The establishment of the cell theory, however, originates from the discovery of cells by Hook which was facilitated by the invention of the microscope. The discovery of cells refuted the earlier perception that the body organs were a uniform mass of substance. The discovery on the contrary illustrated that the structural organs of organisms are composed of small cells that together forms the organs or body parts.

The discovery subsequently led the advancement of knowledge through further discoveries and studies about cells and the organs that they form. The extension of the discovery and the study of the cells to the discovery and study of the nucleus by Brown and the further exploration of the components of cell, types of cells such as the reproductive cells and the DNA cells have been explorations in the subject of biology.

The study of the human anatomy which also originated from the discovery of cells has led to discoveries and improvement of human health through discovery of medicines that help in preserving human health. The cell discovery though a small ancient innovation, has developed to be the core of human health (Meisler, 2006).

Discoveries due to the Invention Telescope

The invention of the telescope is, according Fowler (n.d.), officially attributed Galileo. The invention was formerly made by a man called Roger Bacon who failed to obtain a patent for his invention on the grounds that his innovation was too simple and could be easily reproduced. Galileo then later in his experiments discovered an improvement on the knowledge that pre existed.

In his innovation, Galileo realized that the magnifying power highly depended on the ratio of the strengths of two lenses used in the system, the concave and the convex lenses. After his discovery and modifications, Galileo was granted tenure over the developments (Fowler, n.d.).

The Dark Energy

The invention of telescope opened the universe for study by astrologists. With a clearer and better view of the universe by aid of the telescope, many discoveries have since been made about the features of the universe and the changes that are taking place. One of the stunning discoveries made was the observation of the dark energy. Dark energy is a feature of the space.

According to NASA (n.d.), the dark energy is exerting an effective force that is greatly accelerating the expansion of the universe. The discovery of the dark energy and the expansion of the universe posed a challenge to the previous theory of gravitational force.

Under the theory of force of gravity, there would be no expansion of the universe as the force exerts an attraction towards the center. This discovery of the dark matter has further triggered the study into the universe by casting doubts on the centrifugal theory (NASA, n.d.).

Walker (2010) expressed the fear that the extensiveness and totality of the dark energy in the universe which has a negative implication on the strength of the gravitational force yields a reason for worry. He recounted that scientists consider the dark energy to be a threat to the universe, though they estimate that the universe still has billions of years of existence.

The discovery is greatly developing the understanding of the state of the universe as more effort is being made to understand the effects of the dark energy. The dark energy is still more of a mystery but could turn out to be advantageous or dangerous to the welfare of people. More of its nature and effects are yet to be discovered (Walker, 2010).

Planetary Nebulae

The planetary nebulae have their history of discovery dating from the eighteenth century. The name nebula was accorded to these matters owing to their similarities to the color of Uranus and Neptune. The nebulae are gaseous substances with a fuzzy view and a recognized level of symmetry (Kwok, 2007). Their discovery added to the richness of the study of the universe.

The ability to identify and view planetary nebulae was basically due to the existence of the telescope that has exposed the universe to exploration. Their discovery further led to advanced study that led to the revelation of how they are formed, their properties and their distribution.

The discovery can therefore be similarly credited with enhancement of human knowledge of the universe in general, and that about the planetary nebulae in particular. The knowledge of the formation of the planetary nebulae for example illustrates that evolution of a star leads to emission of a great wind. An instability created in the process leads to the breakage of the outer layer of the star.

This results in hot substances that can then be seen as a glowing disc. An important idea noted about the planetary nebulae is the fact that they are reabsorbed into the “interstellar medium”. This means that the emissions in the process of the formation of the nebulae do not spread to the earth.

This has a significant importance to the general inhabitants of the earth considering the fact that some of the foreign emissions into the earth’s atmosphere are normally dangerous with adverse side effects. An illustrative example is the harmful ultra violet radiations into the atmosphere.

The knowledge of the reabsorbing these emissions into their systems is a relief that builds confidence in people concerning their safety and welfare on earth. The discovery of the planetary nebulae has therefore promoted the development of knowledge through furthering studies and invention as well as stabilizing fears of external threats to the earth’s atmosphere (Darling, n.d.).


The world of discoveries and inventions has been in existence for over centuries. The inventions have been diverse covering both theories and instruments. The discoveries and inventions are on their merits spontaneous processes with one step leading to a chain of further discoveries and inventions.

An illustration is seen in the invention of the telescope and the microscope that further led to discoveries of elements like the brewing process, the cell theory, the dark matter as well as the planetary nebulae of the space. These discoveries have in one way or the other developed the human knowledge by furthering studies and as well enhanced the well being of people either socially or in terms of health.


Crown. (2003). The discovery of cells. Strengthening Teaching and Learning of Cells. Web.

Darling, D. . David darling Info. Web.

Fowler, M. . University of Virginia. Web.

Khachatourians, G. and Arora, K. (2002). Agriculture and Food Production, Volume 2. Netherlands: Elsevier.

Kwok, S. (2007). , Scholar Pedia. Web.

Meisler, C. (2006). . Bemidjistate. Web.

Microscopy. . Microscopy. Web.

NASA. , dark matter. Science NASA. Web.

Science. (2011). . All About Science. Web.

Walker, L. (2010). Will Dark Energy Destroy the Earth? Web.

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