|Concept||Islamic Societies||Western Societies (U.S. Justice System as an Example)|
|Foundation of the law||Islam and its principles serve as the platform for jurisprudence and legislation||Democratic principles denying the dominance of any religious principles define the choice of the legal standards and practices|
|Role of the key legal figures|| || |
|Court||The Islamic court represents a rigid structure based on the Sharia principles||A typical Western court represents a rigid structure based on the principles established in the state law. For instance, in the U.S. justice system, the Constitutional Law and the Amendments play an important part.|
|Court types|| || |
|Punishment||Physical punishment may ensure in specific cases;||Typically, physical punishment is absent from the Western legal system; instead, either prison time or fine is used as a punishment (Rosen 166).|
|Social justice|| || |
|Political structure|| || |
|Criticism and the focus thereof||In the Islamic justice system and especially the social justice framework, the principles of secularism are typically targeted.||In the western philosophy, the ideas of Utilitarianism are deemed an ethically questionable from the perspective of the legal system;|
|Freedom and responsibility||Freedom and responsibility are defined by the principles of the Sharia;||The postulates of liberty and responsibility are defined by the existing democratic principles;|
|Rationality from the perspective of the legal system|| || |
|Equality as the cornerstone of the contemporary justice system||Equality playing the second part in the context of the Islam legal standards compared to the notion of liberty||Equality regarded as a critical component of the social justice philosophy;|
|Supporter of justice||The social principles and the well-being of the general audience is regarded as the supporter of justice||The Individualist ideas serve as the key supporter of justice and the relevant regulations;|
|Social order||Social order is viewed as the direct effect of the realization of justice.||Social order is regarded as the implication of an individual’s decision-making and the choices made by them.|
|List of social minimum||Human instincts serve as the foundation for the implementation of the social minimum justice.||The original position concerning the concept is supported.|
|Concept of the human civilization|| || |
|Public issues|| || |
|Abiding the law|| || |
Ford, Lynne E., et al. American Government and Politics Today. 2017-2018 ed., Cengage Learning, 2016.
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Hamoudi, Haider Ala, and Mark Cammack. Islamic Law in Modern Courts. Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2018.
Rosen, Lawrence. Islam and the Rule of Justice: Image and Reality in Muslim Law and Culture. University of Chicago Press, 2018.