The leadership model can be viewed in three dimensions, namely skills approach, situational, and transformational leadership (Northouse 2010, p. 243). To understand the significance of the leadership models one should pay close attention toward the three elements stated above.
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Taking into consideration the skills approach, it should be pointed out that the being a leader is a talent; however, the needed abilities can be developed and improved. The skills comprise technical, human, and conceptual aspects (Harris 2014, p. 222). Technical skills are about the level of the professional competence in a certain area of the work (Mobley 2011, p. 19). It means that the leader should be able to analyze, evaluate, and control every process and phase of the project (Shearer 2012, p. 48).
Human skills are contrasting to the technical ones as they deal with the knowledge and abilities gained from the personal experience and background. Such type of skill involves the ability to communicate and interact with the team using motivation, inspiration, and influence (Cobb 2012, p. 10). It is significant to create the atmosphere of trust and respect for the prolific working process (Schunk 2012, p. 37). Conceptual skills allow the leader to think and operate the ideas.
The ability to express the abstract idea using logic and hypothesis seems to be essential for the leader. Critical thinking and creativity open a wide range of the opportunities for the pacesetter to succeed. Conceptual skills can be developed and improved. It should be stated that every management level requires certain skills (Williams 2013, p. 32). The human skills are essential for the manager on every level as it is applied during every stage of the working process (Tuckman 2010, p. 342).
The human skills can be described as the ability to work with people, that is, such skills are significant to every level of management. The difference is in the conceptual and technical skills. It should be highlighted that top manager should have developed conceptual skills more than technical, whereas the middle and supervisory level of management is centred on the technical abilities and knowledge (Rowe& Guerrero 2011, p. 82).
According to the recent researches, the skills needed for being a leader can be developed; however one should not forget that it is not something that can be taught; moreover, it is about learning through personal experience (Adair 2010, p. 1). The Self-assessment technique is believed to be a good tool that helps an individual to evaluate strengths and what should be improved or developed (Rothstein 2010, p. 25).
The pivotal objective of the leader is to take a step out of the comfort zone, as the only way to accomplish the goals and get inspiring ideas is to struggle with challenges and difficulties (Ding & Zho 2015, p. 45). The leader skills can be developed through reading and discussions (Ricketts 2011, p. 104). The main elements that contribute to the positive outcome are trust, confidence, and effective communication with the employees (Beersma 2010, p. 1117).
The effective communication involves the explanation of the strategy and the goals for the accomplishment of the aims, the information concerning the future project and ideas of the company, and conflict prevention (Saeed et al. 2014, p. 215). The ability to predict conflict and to eliminate the consequences seems to be very important for the positive outcome of every project (Schulze, Stade & Netzel 2014, p. 58).
The theory of the situational leadership theory is centred on the idea that there is no appropriate leadership style, and every leader should be able to choose the style according to the situation (Goldsmith 2012, p. 35). The appropriate methods should be chosen not only depending on the team but the kind of the task as well (Bertocci 2009, p. 33). In situational leadership, the pacesetter can change the style adjusting to any situation.
The major components of the situational leadership are telling and directing, selling and coaching, participating and supporting, and delegating. While telling and directing, the leader is the one who is responsible for making decisions and informing the employees. This approach can be described as supervisory (Bonnici 2011, p. 45). Selling and coaching are characterized by the activity of the leader in everyday events.
The decisions are made by the leader; however, the relationships between the leader and the team are close to coaching. The participating and supporting style of leadership is focused on the responsibility of employees (Sethuraman & Suresh 2014, p. 167). The task of the leader is to set the direction and to give feedback. In contrast to the telling and directing approach, using the delegating style, the leader does not act like the supervisor, the employees chose tasks, directions, and require less feedback and instructions.
The employee commitment is one of the most discussed topics in the business strategy. The leader should understand the psychology, emotions, and the level of the expectations of the worker to succeed (Mowday, Steers & Porter 2013, p. 12). The organizational commitment is highly connected to how people feel in the workplace and to the attachment of every team member to the values of the company and the organization as well.
The level of commitment can be identified by evaluating how the employee performs tasks. The commitment depends on three different factors, namely emotions, emotions towards the company, readiness to work for the company’s prosperity, and sense of responsibility. Business demands progress, improvement, and constant attention. One of the most significant actions that the leader should undertake is to develop and improve the talents of the workers, to increase the level of commitment of the employees (Suzaki 2014, p. 81).
The pivotal issue while delegating the tasks is not simply to give orders but to provide the employee with all the needed information and tools to perform the task successfully. It is significant to establish the trustful relationships for the success of the team (Yang, 2014, p. 861). The development of the team depends on the action learning (Marquardt, Seng & Goodson, 2010, p. 245). Team members should share the vision of the organization.
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The transformational leadership is centred on the idea that the pacesetter is the role model and should evaluate strength and weaknesses of the employees, try to develop them, and to give tasks that will optimize the working process (Gilbert 2012, p. 7). The transformational leader is active, inspiring, enthusiastic, and can motivate the whole team for the success (DeShon 2009, 46). The leader encourages the employees to view the situation from the different aspects and use creativity skills.
Directing of the vision of every team member on the goals and aims of the company is a demanding process. Transformational leaders have a clear vision of the tasks and make everything to motivate the staff with the same passion towards work. One of the most effective tools that help the leader to achieve the goal is communication, education, and arrangement of social activities. For the team to achieve the best results, it is significant to motivate and inspire the employees (Foss & Lindenberg 2012, p. 269).
The best stimulators for the team are respectful attitude, friendly atmosphere, the creation of the good working conditions and offering the opportunities for self-development. It is no doubt that charismatic leader has more chances to establish the connection between the employees faster. Charisma has an influence on his leadership tactics; it finds the reflection while communication and attitude of the employees towards the pacesetter. Every person in the team should be treated respectfully, and the objective of the leader is to find the key to every person (Coles 2015, p. 15). The leader should dedicate enough time for every employee to succeed. However, it should be stated that different styles of communication and behaviour can be implemented while cooperation with different workers as everyone is unique. Transformational leadership is motivating as the pacesetter has inspiring visions, ideas, and tries to influence the employees with the positive energy (Rose 2014, p. 30).
The interviewed person for the research was Mr. White, who works for a travel company. The main challenge for the Mr. White is that the team is not united and is functioning separately. Every worker acts independently. The relationships between the leader and the other team members contribute to the overall success of the company (Arroyo 2010, p. 705). It should be pointed out that the team aspect should not be undervalued while the working process.
The teambuilding approach is commonly used in the sphere of business nowadays, as it is significantly important for the team to operate as the united organism and to direct the vision in one direction for the achievement of the common goal. Travelling on business around the world, Mr. White cannot dedicate enough time for the teambuilding process. The absence of the leader can be very problematic for the future improvement and development of the travel company. The interview questions were analyzed by interpreting and content analysis.
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- Can you tell me a little bit about yourself?
- How long have you been working within the company?
- Can you give a brief overview of the progress you have made in your career?
- Where do you see yourself in five years?
- Can you define leadership in your own words?
- What skills do you have which enabled you to become a leader and which skills have had to develop?
- Do you think people can develop leadership skills? If so, please explain how these could be gained.
- Can you give an example of when you apply people skills during the process of planning/developing tasks?
- What proportion of your time do you spend on technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills as a leader? Has this change over the time?
- Have you adapted your leadership style depending on the situation? Please explain your answer with an example.
- As a leader how do you identify the level of commitment of your team members?
- When you are delegating tasks, is your leadership style mostly directive or supportive. Can you give an example, and does it depend on the individual?
- What is your strategy to keep your team in continuous development?
- As a leader, is it important for your team to share the vision of the organization? If so, please give an example of how you achieve this.
- As a leader how do you stimulate your team to be creative and innovate?
- How much influence do you think your charisma has on your leadership tactics?
- How important is for you to know your teams needs. Do you spend time to treat each employee in a caring and unique way? If yes, give an example, if the answer is no please explain the reason.
- As the final question, what do you think are the main challenges for leader in your organization?
- Is there anything else you might want to add?