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Learning Cycle: Chemistry Essay (Article)


Balancing Chemical Equations

In the first activity, the information is introduced at the beginning – Model 1: Hydrogen and oxygen react to form water. There are no pre-activity questions that are implied to examine and explore the data. In this way, the learning phase of Exploration is missed in the given activity.

In the following section, a student needs to answer the questions about the reactants and products represented in the scheme, and the answers require the application of critical thinking and analysis skills. Thus, the questions from 1 to 12 belong to the Concept Invention phase. It is required to explain the answers by using analysis and evaluation.

On the third sheet of the chemical study activity, a new additional term is introduced – it provides new information for answering the questions in the following section. The following five questions (13-22) are created to test the received knowledge of the students; therefore, they are at the phase of Application. For answering these questions, one needs to be able to implement the provided information in the new context and make inferences.

The given activity exactly follows the learning cycle in a consistent way. The arrangement of questions and terms according to the phases of the learning cycle facilitates the students’ absorption of new materials.

How Much Is Too Much?

The given activity follows the learning cycle as well. First of all, it commences with the pre-activity questions that are related to the Exploration phase when a student needs to apply the knowledge to gather information and conduct some examinations to give the answers.

Later on, a new term is introduced that is represented in Model 1. The Concept Invention phase follows after it in the Critical Thinking Questions section. The section consists of 9 questions that require the application of analytical and estimation skills from students. There are several multiple-answer questions that are represented in this section for answering which a student needs to contrast, compare, and evaluate the given information.

On the third sheet, a new term is introduced again in Model 2. And the Critical Thinking Questions section continues from question 10 to 14. It possible to say that the phase of Concept Invention is repeated in this activity twice – the students need to answer the questions about the newly introduced material by applying the same set of skills.

Nevertheless, the activity arrangement evolves in correspondence with the learning cycle; the Application phase goes right after the Concept Invention phase. In the Practice section, the students have to answer the questions based on the knowledge adopted in the lesson. They need to develop comprehensive replies and apply the introduced terms in the new contextual situations.

Conclusion

Although usually the terms are introduced after the second phase of the learning cycle, new information in the assessed activities is represented before and after the Invention phase. And in the second activity, the Concept Invention phase is divided into two parts by the term introduction. It can be considered a small deviation from the commonly accepted form of cycle. The rest of the sections are arranged according to the learning cycle organization rules.

Table: Balancing Chemical Equations.

1 Name the reactant(s) and product(s) in Model 1, and give their chemical formulas. I
2 What does the arrow represent in a chemical equation? Write your answer in a complete sentence, and
compare your group’s answer to another group’s answer.
I
3 How many hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms are represented on the reactant side and on the product
side of the equation labeled
a. “Not balanced”?
b. “Correctly balanced”?
I
4 When writing an equation that describes a chemical reaction, what must be true about the atoms of each
type of element in the reaction? Write your answer as a complete sentence.
I
5 How many hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms are represented on the reactant side and on the product
side of the equations labeled “Incorrectly balanced”?
I
6 Given your answer to #5, why are two of the equations in the model labeled as “Incorrectly balanced?
Explain, and go on to modify your answer to #5 if needed.
I
7 Recall that “amu” is a unit of mass used for individual atoms. The mass of one hydrogen atom is 1 amu, and the mass of one oxygen atom is 16 amu.
a. What is the total mass of material on the left side of the arrow in each of the equations – “Not balanced”, “Incorrectly balanced”, and “Correctly balanced” – in the model?
b. What is the total mass of material on the right side of the arrow in each of the equations – “Not balanced”, “Incorrectly balanced”, and “Correctly balanced” – in the model?
I
8 Individually, list the important characteristics of a balanced chemical equation, and then develop a list
from your whole group. Compare your group’s list to the lists of at least two other groups.
I
9 Write the correct balanced equation for the reaction shown in the cartoon below. Compare your answer
to the answers of at least two groups seated near you, and discuss any differences. Change your answer if
needed.
I
10 Write the correct balanced equation for the reaction shown in the cartoon below. Compare your answer
to the answers of at least two groups seated near you, and discuss any differences. Change your answer if
needed.
I
11 Is the general reaction depicted in #9 the same as the reaction in #10? If so, should the reaction be
described by the same chemical equation? Explain clearly in writing.
I
12 Revise your answer to #8 based on your answer to #11 if needed. I
13 How many molecules of NH3 are produced if 6 molecules of H2 react completely? A
14 How many moles of NH3 are produced if 6.0 moles of H2 molecules react completely? A
15 How many moles of NH3 are produced if 1.5 moles of H2 molecules react completely? A
16 How many dozen N2 molecules will react with 1.25 dozen H2 molecules? A
17 Write the ratio, in fraction form, showing the relationship between the molecules of H2 consumed and
molecules of NH3 formed. Include units.
A
18 Write the ratio, in fraction form, showing the relationship between the moles of H2 consumed and the moles
of NH3 formed. Include units.
A
19 Indicate whether the statements below are ‘True’ or ‘False’. If a statement is false, make it true by
changing or adding words.
a. When 5.0 g of nitrogen gas reacts according to the equation above, 5.0 grams of NH3 gas is formed.
b. The number of molecules is conserved in this chemical reaction.
A
20 A mole of N2 has a mass of 28.14 g, and a mole of H2 has a mass of 2.02 g. How many grams of ammonia
are formed when 14.07 grams of nitrogen react completely? A mole of ammonia, NH3, has a mass of 17.10
g. Show all your work.
A
21 Use grammatically correct English sentences to describe how to calculate the mass of NH3 produced if Y
grams of H2 react with excess N2
A
22 Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of gaseous propane, C3H8, with gaseous oxygen
molecules, O2, to yield gaseous carbon dioxide, CO2, and gaseous water, H2O.
A
23 Hydrogen gas (H2) reacts with oxygen gas (O2) to form water vapor (H2O). What mass of oxygen gas is
required to form 10.0 grams of water?
A

Table: How Much Is Too Much?

A What are the chemical formulas for water, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules? E
B Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of hydrogen molecules with oxygen molecules to
form water molecules.
E
1 Circle all the water molecules depicted in the cartoon “B”. I
2 In reactions A, B, and C, are hydrogen atoms shown as solid or open circles? Are oxygen atoms shown as
solid or open circles? Use your answer to make a legend for the model.
I
3 What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen molecules that react in:
a. reaction A?
b. reaction B?
c. reaction C?
I
4 What is the ratio of hydrogen molecules that react to water molecules that form in:
a. reaction A?
b. reaction B?
c. reaction C?
I
5 The quantity of oxygen molecules is doubled in reaction C compared to reaction B; does the number of
water molecules produced increase?
I
6 Why do oxygen molecules appear on the right side of the arrow in reaction C? I
7 Which reactant limits the quantity of H2O produced in reaction C? Which reactant is in excess? I
8 Should O2 be included as a product in the balanced chemical equation for reaction C? Explain your answer
using a complete sentence. All members of the group should have a sentence.
I
9 Determine the number of water molecules produced in a reaction mixture containing
a. 10 hydrogen molecules and 10 oxygen molecules.
b. 30 hydrogen molecules and 13 oxygen molecules.
c. 3 dozen hydrogen molecules and 2 dozen oxygen molecules.
I
10 How many moles of hydrogen react and how many are leftover in reaction III? I
11 What is the ratio of moles of hydrogen to moles of oxygen that react in:
a. reaction I?
b. reaction II?
c. reaction III?
I
12 Should H2 be included as a product in the balanced chemical equation for reaction III? Justify your
reasoning using a complete sentence; compare your group’s sentence to that of another group.
I
13 Determine the number of moles of water produced a reaction mixture containing
a. 6 moles of oxygen and 13 moles of hydrogen.
b. 32.0 g of oxygen and 1.01 g of hydrogen.
I
14 For each reaction mixture in #13, identify the limiting reagent. Go on to define limiting reagent using a
complete sentence.
I
15 Consider the balanced chemical equation, 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g)
a. If 30.0 grams of NO react, what is the mass of O2 required, and what is the mass of NO2 produced?
b. If 30.0 grams of O2 react, what is the mass of NO required, and what is the mass of NO2 produced?
c. A mixture of 30.0 grams each of O2 and NO reacts to form NO2. Which is the limiting reagent, O2 or
NO? Explain your answer using grammatically correct English sentences.
d. A student calculates that 86.3 grams of NO2 are produced from a reaction mixture of 30.0 grams
each of O2 and NO. Is this student correct? Explain your answer using grammatically correct English sentences.
A
16 Solid Zn and I2 (iodine) react to form solid zinc iodide, ZnI2. I2 has a higher molar mass than Zn.
e. Write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
f. If 50.0 grams each of Zn and I2 react, which element will be completely consumed in this reaction?
Answer this without using a calculator.
g. Which element is the limiting reagent?
h. Calculate the mass of ZnI2 that forms.
i. Calculate the mass of the excess element that remains unreacted.
A
17 Acetylene gas, HCCH (or C2H2) reacts with hydrogen gas, H2, to form ethane gas, C2H6.
a. Write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
b. What mass of ethane can be produced from 40.4 grams of hydrogen?
c. Calculate the mass of ethane produced from a mixture of 15.0 grams each of HCCH and H2.
A
18 Titanium metal, Ti, is produced from the reaction of TiCl4 with Mg metal; MgCl2 is the other product. Write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction, and calculate the mass of Ti produced from the reaction given 6.8×10 grams of TiCl4 and 4.2×10 grams of Mg. A
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IvyPanda. 2020. "Learning Cycle: Chemistry." July 11, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/learning-cycle-chemistry/.

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IvyPanda. (2020) 'Learning Cycle: Chemistry'. 11 July.

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