The learning cycle is a model of scientific instructions that are based on inquiry. This model creates a basis for students to work through the understanding of a particular scientific concept as well as deeper this understanding by applying it to new tasks (Walbert 1).
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The learning cycle consists of three phases: exploration, invention and application. In exploration, students are to work in groups and explore the new material, trying to solve problems. In this phase, the teacher is a facilitator and provides assistance when needed. In the invention phase, the teacher leads the students to the core of the lesson. In this phase, students can share their ideas and observations gained in the exploration phase. Lastly, the concept application phase consists of a teacher posing a new problem for students to solve. The problem-solving should be based on the ideas and concepts learned from exploration and invention phases (Walbert 4).
|Balanced Chemical Questions|
|1||Name the reactant(s) and product(s) in Model 1, and give their chemical formulas.||Exploration (E)|
|2||What does the arrow represent in a chemical equation? Write your answer in a complete sentence, and compare your group’s answer to another group’s answer.||(E)|
|3||Individually, list the important characteristics of a balanced chemical equation, and then develop a list from your whole group. Compare your group’s list to the lists of at least two other groups.||(E)|
|4||Write the correct balanced equation for the reaction shown in the cartoon below. Compare your answer to the answers of at least two groups seated near you, and discuss any differences. Change your answer if needed.||(E)|
|5||Is the general reaction depicted in #9 the same as the reaction in #10? If so, should the reaction be described by the same chemical equation? Explain clearly in writing.||Invention (I)|
|6||Write the ratio, in fraction form, showing the relationship between the molecules of H2 consumed and molecules of NH3 formed. Include units.||Application (A)|
|7||Indicate whether the statements below are ‘True’ or ‘False’. If a statement is false, make it true by changing or adding words.||(A)|
|8||Use grammatically correct English sentences to describe how to calculate the mass of NH3 produced if Y grams of H2 react with excess N2.||(A)|
|9||Use grammatically correct English sentences to describe how to calculate the mass of NH3 produced if Y grams of H2 react with excess N2.||(A)|
|10||Hydrogen gas (H2) reacts with oxygen gas (O2) to form water vapor (H2O). What mass of oxygen gas is required to form 10.0 grams of water?||(A)|
|How Much is Too Much?|
|11||Circle all the water molecules depicted in the cartoon “B”.||Exploration (E)|
|12||What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen molecules that react in: |
Compare your group’s answer to the answer of another group, and explain any differences.
|13||Should O2 be included as a product in the balanced chemical equation for reaction C? Explain your answer using a complete sentence. All members of the group should have a sentence.||(E)|
|14||How many moles of hydrogen react and how many are leftover in reaction III?||Application (A)|
|15||Should H2 be included as a product in the balanced chemical equation for reaction III? Justify your reasoning using a complete sentence; compare your group’s sentence to that of another group.||(E)|
|16||For each reaction mixture in #13, identify the limiting reagent. Go on to define limiting reagent using a complete sentence.||(A)|
|17||Which reactant limits the quantity of H2O produced in reaction C? Which reactant is in excess?||Invention (I)|
|18||Why do oxygen molecules appear on the right side of the arrow in reaction C?||(I)|
|19||In reactions A, B, and C, are hydrogen atoms shown as solid or open circles? Are oxygen atoms shown as solid or open circles? Use your answer to make a legend for the model.||(A)|
|20||The quantity of oxygen molecules is doubled in reaction C compared to reaction B; does the number of water molecules produced increase?||(A)|
Thus, after the analysis of the chemistry activities provided, it is clear that the activities include all phases of the learning cycle. The tasks like writing equations and comparing the answers within the group and with other groups are the exploration phase of the learning cycle because the students have the possibility to develop their own opinions and hypotheses as well as test them via actual experiments and various observations.
The stage of the invention is seen in the tasks like “Which reactant limits the quantity of H2O produced in reaction C? Which reactant is in excess?” are of the invention or introduction phase because students are asked to compare and analyze the concepts introduced in the phase of exploration. Lastly, the tasks like “For each reaction mixture in #13, identify the limiting reagent. Go on to define limiting reagent using a complete sentence” belong to the phase of application because students are asked to test their understanding of the learned concepts and work individually.
Because the analyzed activities are designated to one specific topic, there is only one learning cycle in each task. The term introduction occurs in the pre-activity questions.
The Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) activities can be used in a variety of ways during the learning cycle. They can be helpful in completely turning the classroom into a learning environment with experiences gained separately and in groups. In a POGIL environment, the research students are actively involved in group activities to develop new skills and learn to work in teams on guided activities (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning 2).
Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning. n.d. Web.
Walbert, David. The Learning Cycle. n.d. Web.