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Leishmaniasis is a tropical illness that is caused by a parasite. The infection is spread through a vector, which is the sand fly. The female phlebotomine sand fly is responsible for the spread of the disease. The parasite causing this infection is associated with tropical and temperate climates (Davis, 2011).
This tropical disease is initiated by a protozoan that is found in the sand flies. The protozoan thrives in the gut of the fly and spread when the sand fly bites humans. This condition causes a skin infection that is characterised by the development of sores. The symptoms develop in a matter of weeks or months after the infection (Berman, 1997).
Leishmaniasis is said to affect about two million people every year. Cutaneous leishmaniasis accounts for about three quarters of new incidences whereas visceral leishmaniasis accounts for about a quarter of the new cases. When individuals are settled into the affected areas, this can result into an epidemic (Davis, 2011; Guessous-Idrissi, et al, 1997a).
In Morocco, the cutaneous leishmaniasis is quite common. The country has different vegetation regions that represent the differences in the climate of the country. This has affected the distribution of the sand fly species in the country (Guessous-Idrissi, et al, 1997b).
As a consequence, leishmaniasis forms are distributed across the country in tandem with the different climates. In morocco, the L. tropica is common in the central parts of the country; L. infantum is found in the northern parts of the country while L. major is prevalent in the south and south eastern parts (WHO, n.d.).
There are various modes of treating leishmaniasis. Intravenous medication can be used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. In this case, liposomal amphotericin B can be used (WHO, 2012). This is the only medication that has gotten approval from the US government. In other countries, this disease is treated using the pentavalent antimony (SbV) that is used during the intravenous process. In recent times, paromomycin and miltefosine are used in treating this condition.
The other treatments administered for this condition are oral ketoconazole, pentostam, and intravenous pentamidine (Davis, 2011). In addition, all cases should be detected, and early treatment started as soon as possible. Collaboration between the various sectors is also essential in the treatment of the condition. Significant research should be carried out on this condition with surveys focussing on the sand flies to identify the infested areas that should be avoided.
This involves various strategies. There is a need to control the vector, as well as their reservoir. Health awareness is also critical in vector control. Leishmaniasis can be controlled through prevention of the bites from the sand flies. The sand flies can be controlled through the use of insect repellents. The flies can also be controlled through the spray of infested areas to get rid of the flies. In addition, individuals in affected areas are advised to sleep under nets to avoid being bitten and infected by the sand flies.
Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease that should be controlled. There are various treatment methods that have been suggested. This includes administration of medication to the affected individual-orally and through injections. However, the best way of dealing with this disease is through vector control. This has been identified as the best way of ensuring that this condition does not threaten human existence.
Berman, JD 1997, “Human Leishmaniasis: Clinical, Diagnostic, and Chemotherapeutic Developments in the Last 10 Years”, Clin Infect Dis., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 684-703.
Davis, CP 2011, Leishmaniasis, viewed on https://www.medicinenet.com/leishmaniasis/article.htm
Guessous-Idrissi, N, et al. 1997a, “Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging epidemic focus of Leishmania tropica in north Morocco, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 660-663.
Guessous-Idrissi, N, et al. 1997b, Short report: Leishmania tropica: etiologic agent of a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 172-3.
WHO 2012, Leishmaniasis: Access to medicines, viewed on https://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/en/
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WHO n.d, Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco, viewed on http://www.emro.who.int/neglected-tropical-diseases/countries/cl-morocco.html