Epidemiology Essay Examples and Topics

Epidemiological studies of tuberculosis

Introduction Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which mainly affects pulmonary system, but can affect kidneys, brain, and bones. The causative agent of tuberculosis is a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is among the leading causes of deaths globally because it is an infectious disease, which spreads through the air. Epidemiological studies have revealed that tuberculosis […]

Pandemic Flu Planning

Recommended epidemic control steps A flu pandemic can be controlled through four steps that would be aimed at reducing the rate of spread of the disease and reducing its impact on the community. The steps are useful if an outbreak is detected early before it could have explosive growth (Interim Pre-pandemic Planning Guidance, 2007). If […]

Measures of Disease Frequency

According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), measures of disease frequency are the “building blocks” employed by epidemiologists to evaluate effects of a disease on humans (2008, p.59). When measures of disease frequency are compared, they consolidate building blocks in a constructive manner and permits one to define the correlation between characteristics and a disorder. It […]

Preventing Hotels from Norwalk Virus

The Norwalk viruses are one of the dangerous contagious viruses of gastrointestinal track. The signs and symptoms of these viruses appear in 24 to 48 hours after the virus attack. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and headache are the symptoms of the viral presence in the human body. One of the interesting facts about this virus […]

The Problem of Zoonotic Diseases

The world is currently facing the problem of zoonotic diseases. Animals have been discovered to transmit some infectious diseases to humansthat putting their lives at risk. This issue has raised concern inmany countries and among manyresearchers. Many organizations like the Health Map and the Global Viral Forecasting have shown massiveinterest on the issue. There is […]

Health Officials’ Handling Of First U.S. Ebola Case Raises Questions

Summary This article is aimed at discussing the way in which U.S. healthcare organizations can respond to the threat of Ebola epidemic in the country. It should be noted that one case of this disease has already been registered in America, and this event has attracted the reaction of many medical workers, public administrators, and […]

US efforts to cope with the effects of Ebola epidemic

This article is aimed at examining the efforts of the American government to overcome the effects of the Ebola epidemic. In particular, the Department of Defense intends to send more troops to West Africa in order to limit the spread of this disease in the region. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the cooperation […]

Measuring the Impact of Ebola

Summary Ebola, in recent months, has emerged as a major health hazard to the world populace. African countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone are affected by this contagion. This epidemic is likely to become a momentous global event. Critical global response is needed to deal with this tribulation. According to the WHO, Liberia and […]

A Global Health Discussion: Ebola

An article by Michaud and Kates seems to suggest that if there are no changes in the projected epidemic outbreak, then the possible future outcome of Ebola epidemic could reach 1.4 million by the end of January 2015 based on the CDC’s new Ebola model (Michaud & Kates, 2014). This estimate could be the worst-case […]

Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

Introduction HIV/AIDS has become a concern to everybody in the world. Many countries and individuals have found it very hard to deal with it because of the lack of funds. Therefore, organizations have come up to help them handle this problem. Notable organizations that have offered their support include WHO, PEPFAR, the Clinton’s AIDS Initiative, […]

Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program Evaluation

Brief Description of a Disease Dengue is a well-known epidemic disease caused by the dengue virus that may be developed as a result of an Aedes mosquito bite. The mosquito is under a threat of being infected by the virus under consideration when it bites a person. Only after it is infected, it may spread […]

Dengue Disease in Africa

Distribution and determinants of the Dengue Disease Dengue can be mostly observed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In particular, one should speak about Southeast Asia since it is more affected by this virulent disease. Yet, much attention should also be paid to Sub-Saharan Africa as well as South Africa (Figueiredo, et al., 2010, p. 1). […]

Anglo American

HIV/AIDS Strategy Stakeholders As Anglo American looks for the most effective HIV/AIDS approach, it needs to consider the different stakeholders in South Africa. The stakeholders include the South African government, the Anglo American employees, the populations of surrounding communities, families of employees, the Global Council on HIV/AIDS, The National Union of Mineworkers, pharmaceutical companies and […]

Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis

Introduction TB, a contagious chronic disease that primarily affects the lungs is caused by the inhalation of Mycobacterium bacilli (Hanif & Garcia-Contreras, 2012). Today, TB remains a serious public health concern in many parts of the world (Hanif & Garcia-Contreras, 2012). Surveys by WHO indicate TB infections and fatalities were especially high in the 90s […]


Introduction Epidemiology is defined as investigations that are carried out to establish origins, as well as outcomes and patterns of conditions, and the infections within certain populaces (Gregg, 2002). The study has been well thought-out in the public health sector as the central and elementary technique of approaching the health linked concerns. It also introduces […]

Duties of Health Care Professionals during Pandemic of Highly Contagious Diseases

Focusing on Duties of Health Care Professionals during Pandemic of Highly Contagious Diseases such as SARS and Ebola Recent experience in dealing with outbreaks of Ebola and SARS in Africa proved that he health care professionals often fail to adhere to their duties. The 2006 World Health Organization Reports underscore the importance of considering ethical […]

Keeping DDT or Against DDT

This paper argues in favor of keeping dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control malaria because of its persistence, broad toxicity against insects, low cost, and insoluble nature and opposes the argument in favor of doing away with DDT. A synthesis of experimental results in which biopsy specimens were used to develop the argument against the use of […]

An Avian Flu’s Emergency Scenario in the State of Illinois

Pandemics are a source of concern to any society in the contemporary world. They can either be man-made or natural. Regardless of their type, disasters pose a risk to human life and property. Avian flu is one such form of natural disaster that can wreck havoc in the society. Also known as the avian influenza, […]

5 years Strategic Plan for HIV prevention in Swaziland

Executive Summary The issue of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) spread and infections is an international concern with nations across the globe endeavouring to provide a long-term sustainable solution in combating this pandemic. The HIV issue has been a constant problem that has elicited national debates and called for serious interventions to secure the world’s population […]

Control of Tuberculosis in Swaziland

A Programme Plan for the Control of Tuberculosis in Swaziland TB Problem Tuberculosis (TB) is potentially dangerous infectious disease caused by different strains of mycobacterium, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In most cases, TB affects the lungs. Infected people may spread TB bacteria to others through spitting, sneezing, and coughing respiratory tiny droplets. Most TB infections do […]

Hospital Scrubbing Solution

PICO question: For developing countries experiencing high rates of hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections), will the use of preventive measures as compared to many antiseptic scrubbing solutions decrease the rates of infections among patients. Population (P) – Hospitals in the developing countries The target population in this project is based on the fact that it is […]

HIV and AIDS prevention among the youth in Asia

Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic began in early 1900s in Africa. However, most of the world became aware of the virus existence in the 1980s (Kral et al., 1997). In the United States HIV was first noticed in homosexual male in 1983. In the 1980s the virus spread among populations, largely unnoticed by the […]

Malaria in Women and Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Introduction Globally, the complexity of diseases and associated treatment costs forms one of the greatest impediments to developments. This is because, governments are spending millions of dollars in trying to improve the health conditions of their citizens, a factor that takes many funds that could be helpful in other development sectors such as industrialization. For […]

Health and Health Inequity

Introduction Nigeria detected its first HIV/AIDS case in 1986, and since then, the country has gradually registered HIV/AIDS statistics that qualify for an AIDS epidemic. In 1991, the prevalence was 1.8%. In 1996, it shot up to 4.5%. In 2001, it recorded a high of 5.8% and finally in 2003, the figure was 5%. The […]

Case study of HIV in South Africa

Introduction The HIV pandemic is considered as among the most destructive of health crises of the 20th and 21st century. The death toll from this scourge continues to rise as the search for a cure continues. The South Saharan Africa is among the hardest hit with up to 6.1 percent of the adult population living […]


Introduction Leishmaniasis is a tropical illness that is caused by a parasite. The infection is spread through a vector, which is the sand fly. The female phlebotomine sand fly is responsible for the spread of the disease. The parasite causing this infection is associated with tropical and temperate climates (Davis, 2011). This tropical disease is […]

Epidemiology: Genetics-Related Programs

Synopsis The Human Genome Epidemiology Network (HuGNet) is a global body that is evaluating the effects of genome on the health of the human population. In addition, the international body studies how to use genetic pieces of information in health improvement and disease prevention (HuGENet – About Us, n.d.). In the Florida’s health department, the […]

HIV and AIDS: an Evolving Global Response

Introduction HIV/AIDS has been ranked as one of the main killer diseases globally. It is mainly “transmitted through unprotected sex and blood transfusion” (CDC 2010). It destroys the CD4 cells and this limits the body’s ability to protect itself from infections. The use of condom has been proposed as an effective way of curbing the […]

DDT to control insect populations

DDT was successfully used for several years to control insect populations such as mosquitoes. However, in the 1970s, subsequent research studies on the safety of this insecticide proved that it was not safe for other animals. In other words, the toxic nature of DDT was found to be indiscriminate. Although the findings of these studies […]

Using DDT to control mosquitoe

DDT was widely used to control malaria and louse borne typhus fever in the 1940s through 1950s. At the time, it was rated as the most effective insecticide ever synthesized by man. It was largely effective in eliminating mosquitoes and lice; vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and typhus fever respectively. However, its fortunes […]

The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment

The Potential Role of Vitamin D for Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases This study investigates the use of vitamin D for the deterrence and cure of tuberculosis and other contagious infections. Deficiency of vitamin D is a global problem which results in higher occurrences of the immune system ailments. Its deficiency also […]

Hiv/ Aids In Papua New Guinea

Introduction Papua New Guinea is a country found in the south western part of the Pacific Ocean. Though a small country, New Guinea is diverse with a large number of indigenous languages and culture. The country is also majorly rural with only a small percentage of the population found in the country’s urban centers. AIDS, […]

Malaria’s and Agriculture Relationship in Kenya

Statement of problem Since its discovery as a virulent disease, malaria remains a global scourge affecting millions of people especially in Africa. Research has linked the prevalence of the disease to certain phenomena like agriculture. This case study analyses the relationship between malaria and agriculture and some of the measures which have been put in […]

The Use of DDT

DDT is a chemical which was first found in the year 1874 and was well studied since then. World Health Organization approves of DDT because it has proven to be the most effective when it comes to combating malaria. In conjunction with other preventive measures, it is able to decrease the transmission of malaria when […]

Critical Analysis of Avahan – the India AIDS Initiative

Introduction Since the discovery of AIDS a few decades ago, there have been numerous scientific breakthroughs when it comes to understanding the virus and its devastating medical consequences (Nelson & Williams, 2007, p.123). Scientists were also able to successfully develop medicines that slow down the progress of AIDS and HIV (Whiteside, 2008). However, AIDS is […]

HIV/AIDS by Allan Whiteside

The Problem HIV/AIDS is a disease that is easily transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and pregnancy. The HIV virus weakens the victim’s immune system and after some point the disease becomes the medical condition known as AIDS. At this point the body can no longer counter the effects of infection. But the worst part […]

AIDS Combating in the 21st Century: Issues and Challenges

Introduction In contemporary times, AIDS has become manageable courtesy of discovery of lifesaving drugs in 1996. Since then, AIDS death casualties have been on the decrease with life expectancy taking the opposite direction. Actually, an AIDS victim today may live to average of 65 years of age and this is commendable. Unfortunately, this good news […]

HIV/ AIDS in the UK

General Country Information Official Country Name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Continent and Region: Europe and Western Europe Neighbouring States: France and Ireland Governmental System: Constitutional Monarchy Economic System: Liberal service based economy Head of State: Prime Minister David Cameron (CIA, 2010) Member of International Political Organizations (e.g. NATO)? NATO- a founding […]

Review on the article about Hepatitis C by Rena Fox

Summary of the Article The article written by Rena Fox (2013) is aimed at informing the audience about the approval of two drugs that can be used for the treatment of hepatitis C. These medications can be described as protease inhibitors (Fox 2013). These drugs are based on the combination of rebavirin and peginterferon. Their […]

Healthcare and Legal Issues

Bird Flu Pandemic. President Obama’s Senior Adviser Containment policies are never easy to discuss (Pozgar, 2011). Needless to say, most people seem to be unaware of the benefits of containment as a strategy for preventing the disease from taking a statewide scale. It is important to stress, though, that the recent examples of influenza containment […]

Swine Flu Vaccination

Swine flu is a virus-caused ailment of the respiratory system of pigs depicted by nasal discharge, chesty cough, loss of appetite, and restlessness. The production of swine flu vaccine is a costly undertaking. It takes over one billion chicken eggs to manufacture the three billion doses of the vaccine required globally. The entire production process […]

Definition of Clostridium Difficile Bacterium

Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that causes colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea among patients. The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection has increased in the past decade not only in the general population, but also among hospitalized-patients. This means that Clostridium difficile infection is a nosocomial infection that threatens the lives of patients in hospital settings. Forster, […]

History of Treatment the HIV/AIDs

The problem Since the1980’s, physicians have been looking for a cure to HIV-AIDs; people have been suffering from the disease with the medics offering little hope of getting a cure. The much that physicians have done is to develop medication to reduce the effects of the disease; the major challenge hindering the development of a […]

Implementation of AIDS control policies in Australia and South Africa

The term AIDS was coined in 1982. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is a worldwide epidemic that requires prompt intervention (Carr as cited in Timewell, Minichiello & Plummer, 1992). The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent for AIDS. The virus compromises the body’s immune system in 3 to 7 years […]

Management of Hepatitis B virus infection

Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus infection has been proved a usual source of death link to liver failure, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Internationally, more than 345 million individuals have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) with more than 619,000 individuals dying each year from hepatitis B virus associated liver illness. Vaccination for HBV is greatly efficient […]

HIV/AIDS among African Americans

Introduction The prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS vary from on ethnic group to another in the United States. The epidemiology of this global menace has evolved with time since it started by affecting the white people and is now affecting the black people. Epidemiological data indicates that in the modern society, black people have high prevalence […]

John Snow (The Father of Epidemiology)

Introduction John Snow was a medical practitioner of English descent. He was instrumental in the acceptance of anaesthesia in the medical field. Snow is also hailed for his extensive study and contribution in the field of medical hygiene. However, he is best known for his work in relation to epidemiology. Snow carried out extensive research […]

Diarrhea Prevention and Control

Causes of Diarrhea Although condition of diarrhea is taken lightly by most people, it is a dangerous ailment that can cause death. This ailment is one of the most common causes of infant death in developing countries. Mortality of children is associated with diarrhea in a significant number of cases in developing nation. Poor hygiene […]

The Evolutionary Genetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly infectious bacterium that is the causative agent of Tuberculosis (Murray, 2002, p.566). Tuberculosis is a global healthcare concern that has been declared an epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is estimated that approximately 30% of the world’s population has contracted the bacterium (Murray, 2002, p.568). In Taiwan, tuberculosis […]

Disease: Analysis of the Article Preparing for the Next Pandemic by Michael T. Osterholm

Connections Environment: As millions of people can die due to influenza pandemic, there will be serious impact on environment. Besides, birds and mammals are also in danger. Mass production of drugs can lead to the pollutions of the environment. The developing countries as the areas where pandemic can arise will be in collapse and became […]

AIDS as an epidemic of Signification

It is evident that the Aids epidemic is a globally potential threat. This means that it is an epidemic of an infectious deadly disease, which threatens the lives of many people globally. In addition to this, Aids is also an epidemic of meanings or signification. This means that people often identify the epidemic with certain […]

The Spread of Diseases among Health Care Providers

Topic Proposal As a nurse, one must be exposed to different patients with different diseases, and there needs to be a better understanding from the hospital administration and other people of the risks/consequences associated with the exposure and potential disease spread among healthcare profession. This paper shall examine “The spread of diseases within healthcare providers.” […]

Key Drivers of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa and in San Francisco

Introduction HIV/AIDS continues to be a leading cause of alarm globally. New infections and deaths due to HIV/AIDS related complications are major issues that need to be dealt with urgently. It is particularly alarming in the sub-Saharan Africa where an average of 10% HIV prevalence in adults has been recorded. This is very high compared […]

Key Drivers of HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa and in San Francisco and Church’s Response to the AIDS Pandemic

Key Drivers of HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa and San Francisco Disease epidemics are largely caused by specific historic, political, economic, and cultural aspects. In this respect, the infection spread is often regarded as a social rather than biological process. The plague of the twenty-first century is AIDS that have been caused by a […]

Drivers of HIV and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa and San Francisco

The last three decades bear testament to the devastating effects of HIV and AIDS on all spheres of society. No society has gone untouched by the epidemic. While poorer countries have the highest infection and casualty rates, richer countries continue to devote significant resources towards research and financing of the fight against the virus. San […]

The Canadian International Development Agency

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), a Canadian organization, has greatly assisted in the fight against HIV/AIDs. By the year 2005, the organization had committed a lot of its funds in the fight against HIV/AIDS. For instance, from 2000 to 2005, the organization used more than $ 800 to fight HIV/AIDS worldwide. This organization is committed […]

Countering to the Hepatitis Disease

Recent reports have indicated that an estimated 2% of America’s population has contacted chronic strains of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) or the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). An average of 15000 annual deaths has been ascribed to Hepatitis or other liver related infections. It should be noted that up to 75% of the infected populace […]

Communicable Diseases: H. I. V. and A.I.D.s

Introduction A communicable disease is a disease transmitted through people, animals, and surfaces and is carried by micro organisms. They are transmitted through blood contact, close contact with an infected person or through body fluid contact of an infected to a healthy person. These diseases include Malaria, HIV-AIDS helps, whooping cough, and Mumps among others […]

Why HIV/Aids crises are high in African-American community

Introduction Of all the afflictions that have scourged mankind in the 21st Century, HIV/AIDS is arguably the most terrible. This is because it results in the premature death of the infected and has no known cure to date. While all races are equally predisposed to being infected by the HIV virus, it has been noted […]

A Project on Establishment of Jousing Flats Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centers in Njoro Area to Reduce Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and Provide Nutritional Support Among the Youths Aged Between 16-35 Years

Background Knowledge According to UNAIDS (2008), “The HIV/AIDS epidemic’s spread through the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is highly varied. Although it is not correct to speak of a single African epidemic, Africa is without doubt the most affected by the virus. Inhabited by just over 12% of the world’s population, Africa is estimated to have […]

Aids in Lesotho, Africa

Origin of HIV/AIDS The illness came into the limelight in the early 1980’s; since then it has caused havoc and stress while scientists have been struggling to find out where it came from. There are several theories that have been advanced to try explaining the origin of the vice with no certainty still realized. Several […]

Communicable Diseases

Diseases that are spread from one person to another either directly or indirectly are referred to as communicable diseases (Krause, 2008, p. 1). These diseases are caused by germs which are in the form of either bacteria or virus. Therefore, a communicable disease is an illness that arises from transmission of an infectious agent or […]

Control and Treatment of Communicable Diseases

The occurrence of natural disasters renders the victims vulnerable to communicable diseases. Calamities like floods, droughts, earthquakes and hurricanes occur annually around the world which alter the disease patterns. The outbreak of communicable diseases doesn’t take into account borders but rather is being spread like fire if control measures are not applied immediately (General Health […]

HIV/AIDS in Africa and The PEN-3 model

HIV/AIDS is worldwide pandemic that has affected the health status of many people. Intuitively, Africa is one of the regions, which experience an increase in HIV infections especially when compared to the developed countries. Authentically, the major problem that hinders health development and the fight against HIV/AIDS is cultural practices. The cultural identity of each […]

Prevalence of Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease of the liver that occurs due to an infection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). HBV infect the liver and causes hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver cirrhosis. Hepatitis B poses significant health problem globally because it ranks tenth among diseases that cause death. According to World Health Organization, about 2 […]

Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Rural Ethiopia: Identifying Risks

Identification of risks Though the Ethiopian people experienced a lot of conflicts and famine, another problem is apparent as they also die of AIDS (Coppola, 2011). The number of women who are infected with HIV/AIDS is high even for those who are in marriage relations (Assefa, Taye, & Yamāh̲barāwi ṭenāt madrak (Ethiopia), 2008, p. 107). […]