We will write a custom Essay on Epidemiology specifically for you
301 certified writers online
Epidemiology is defined as investigations that are carried out to establish origins, as well as outcomes and patterns of conditions, and the infections within certain populaces (Gregg, 2002).
The study has been well thought-out in the public health sector as the central and elementary technique of approaching the health linked concerns. It also introduces ways of how to evaluate and interpret information fittingly.
It has been crucial in terms of enhancing techniques of the methodology that are utilized in the processes used in studies carried out in issues concerned with public health, as well as, offering solutions to the matters that have been realized.
There are some key areas involved in the application of epidemiology and they encompass bio-monitoring, screening of disease, as well as observation, outbreak investigation and infection etiology.
The role of epidemiologists has been critical with most of them putting efforts into various aspects, including understanding the data collected after scrutinizing. Other techniques such as biological methods are used to examine and comprehend the infections.
These involve compiling the correct statistics, as well as coming up with accurate conclusions. Blueprints based on epidemiology come in handy in terms of attaining precise ideas in the division of public health.
The ideas comprise of categorizing supposed infections, as well as their relativity and the most appropriate methods of ensuring that they are taken care of by being controlled. Without proper assessments, they cannot be well established.
Epidemiology in the field entails the application of the techniques utilized on the infections that arise without warning, especially at the time that an urgent situation is required for apposite involvement (Gregg, 2002).
Owing to the nature of the infections, as well as the epidemics that have been taking place, epidemiologists have been designing new strategies to intervene during emergencies. Methodologies have been changing with time, and they are now applicable to a wider range of health problems.
In the field of epidemiology, epidemiologists who come up with blueprints for variables of interrelated information, conduct field studies. These include the community, environment, as well as the date and month.
Detailed Procedures in Field Epidemiology Investigation
There are various aspects aimed at in epidemiology, such as the connection involving the environment, as well as other aspects such as the host and the medium. The use of certain techniques, such as the observation of infections and outbreaks during field studies that they conduct enables specialists to comprehend their outcomes (Tamarack, 2001).
A number of observational study methods are used. The modus operandi utilized in carrying out the studies involves analytical research, as well as cohort, and the design of effectual control methods. They also encompass description-based studies, as well as, the interpretation and analysis of data.
Descriptive techniques mainly consist of case intelligence of illness or death, and the various field surveys conducted. This type of study is used when illustrating an epidemic. The method used to compile data for reports involves visiting communities.
This means paying visits to individuals using a certain pattern that may form a strategic format in compiling data on health issues afflicting the people, as well as seasonal patterns where applicable. It also covers the frequency that the infections appear. The results are useful in various ways, such as during the distribution of preventative immunization.
Get your first paper with 15% OFF
There are several examples that may show the use of descriptive studies, as well as analysis of data. One is the research carried out on cancer in young patients in the USA. Between 1985 and 1990, an increase in the number of patients forced researchers to carry out surveys on children.
They were all below the age of 15, and they suffered from the terminal disease. The number of respondents with the ailment was 13,450. For the most part, the data was investigated to establish whether there was some change.
The results portrayed that there was no major substantial change in early child cancer, and the rates have remained relatively stable since the late 80’s. Clinical experts, in answering concerns about cancer risks, used these results.
These consist of environmental studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies. Such studies are conducted to test hypotheses regarding the factors that cause a disease. The type of data includes environmental conditions, which relate to the disease. Samples are collected from the environment, water that the locals drink and the kind of soil on the ground.
Studies need to be designed according to the environment where the health problems have occurred. Data needs to be designed such as individuals, age, gender, and the level of condition in relation to the disease. A case study is conducted to decide whether an individual should be classified as either infected or safe.
These studies are carried out among groups of people not suffering from the infection. They aim at measuring the level of risk the patients are in, over selected periods. Data is designed in relation to each person and it contains details such as age, gender, and their environment.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
The purpose of many field epidemiology studies is to discover causes, risk associated factors, methods of transmission, as well as the factors that put members of the population at risk. There are circumstances where the levels of related vulnerability and the possibility of contact are determined. This enables the researchers to administer appropriate cures (Tamarack, 2001).
There are varieties of controls, with each having its strengths and weaknesses, and diseases having occurred either in the community or in the hospital. Epidemiologists need to determine the best method for curing the diseases.
Gregg, B.M. (2002). Field epidemiology. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Tamarack, C.T. (2001). Infectious diseases. Mississauga, Canada: Jones and Berlet Publishers.