Marketing science entails the creation of marketing solutions through the use of scientific methods and this can either work for or against a brand. It leads to the promotion of certain brands at the expense of other competing ones. In marketing science, attention is not given to a particular brand. Instead, generalizations are made and fixed procedures are followed regardless of specific brand needs.
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Kodak is an example of a brand that has been negatively affected by marketing science. The test score obtained in marketing science can be misleading if not well interpreted or if an inappropriate sample is used which might work against a brand. It also requires a lot of research which can be both time and money consuming.
This may necessitate an increase in the price of the brand above that of other competing brands and consequently lower the market share. Although it advocates for some product differentiation, research has shown that for a brand to be widely accepted in the market, it should not be so very different from other related brands.
The advantages of marketing science to a brand is that it creates recognition of a specific brand and if well implemented, it can help attract new customers while at the same time retaining old ones.
It also helps in utilization of resources of a marketing department and no money is spent on marketing without prior research being conducted. Through marketing science, the time spent to spread awareness about a brand is significantly reduced. Targeted sales levels for the brand are therefore realized within a short period of time (Czinkota & Ronkainen 2007,559).
Communication models are important tools in marketing as they can either make or break a brand. Different models have different ways of image creation about a product in the minds of consumers.
The communication models used in marketing a product include the AIDAS model, model of Joyee, DAGMAR model, heightened appreciation model and the levidge and steiner model. Different organizations adopt different communication models each of which has different stages in the marketing of a product.
Air Deccan for example used the AIDAS model whose steps include attracting the attention of customers, creating an interest in the product, determining the opinion of the customer, leading the customer to desire the product, encouraging them to purchase and ultimately having the customer derive satisfaction from the product (Taylor 2004, 144).
In the model of Joyee, the marketer concentrates on consumer attitudes, advertising and the customer’s behavior in marking purchases. Through this model, advertising is used to positively influence the attitude of customers regarding a product.
This is however not easy because different people are likely to interpret the same advertisement differently. Advertising is therefore used as the main tool of communication between the marketer and the consumers.
The stages in the DAGMAR model include creating awareness about the product and convincing customers that the brand is better than competing brand and finally encouraging the customer to purchase it. The model has been used by organizations such as general motors’ to identify their advertising objectives.
The heightened appreciation model is used by organizations in creation of advertising strategies that are most effective. The Levidge and Steiner communication model includes two additional stages to the DAGMAR model which are persuation and an evaluation of the long term effects of an advertisement to the brand (Taylor 2004, 144).
Czinkota, M. & Ronkainen, I. (2007) International Marketing. Mason: Thomson South- Western. Taylor, J. (2004) Marketing Communications. London: Kogan Page.