Conservation is the process of human beings utilization of natural sources in order to produce the maximum sustainable benefit to current generation at the same time upholding its responsibility to achieve and ensure that the same resources are reserved for future generations.
Conservation therefore entails maintenance, preservation, restoration and sustainable utilisation of natural surroundings (Hupages.com).
Ecotourism and Voluntourism
Ecotourism and voluntourism are types of tourism that have recently emerged; ecotourism is a form of tourism that entails travel to serene and uncontaminated natural regions that preserve the surroundings and develops the welfare of the local community (Hubpages.com).
Ecotourism involves travelling to natural region where there is slightest impact on the surroundings resulting from tourism activities. As such ecotourism creates environmental consciousness and supply direct financial support to the local community, helps maintain individual rights and demographic travels and respects the local people’s culture.
Ecotourism aims to preserve the cultural and natural diversity of biological areas by protecting the local ecosystem and it is actually intended to encourage sustainable employment of the neighbouring biodiversity through supplying employment to local people (Hubpages.com).
On the other hand, voluntourism is type of travel where the traveller gets actively involved in various charitable activities in combination to their vacation activities.
This means that the vacation/trip must be well planned in advance and reservation made so as to accommodate all the extra activities that the tourist will be involved in apart from the vocation itself.
Thus, both ecotourism and voluntourism creates a win-win state for both the people and the environment; the local people and the environment benefit from the natural resource organization, not simply biological resource preservation but also tourist destination attraction, sustainable monetary growth and poverty mitigation.
The optimal economic models present extra holistic method to growth that is contrary to typical neoliberal viewpoint; the voluntourists identify themselves with the community where minority groups of people live.
Ecosystems are viewed as nation’s natural resources from which financial or economic reimbursement can be produced. Cooperation and partnership are important amongst stakeholders in producing shared non-financial and financial benefits for everyone, supported by preservation of the ecosystem as sustainable source of income.
Nevertheless, the derived benefits must be allocated to the local people and awareness programs conducted to inform and promote cooperation amongst the stakeholders.
In the present scenario, WARF rely on assistance and donations from its collaborators and the local people to provide the man power needed in taking care of endangered flora and fauna and managing educational programmes in communities.
Additionally, they rely on students as volunteers to research on the animal diseases and their behaviour in order to empower conservation efforts. These volunteers are engaged by travel bureaus or through the internet to generate steady revenue for WARF future programmes and other required resources (West, Ford and Ibrahim 527).
In conclusion educational, non-financial and financial benefits plus the need to improve the local community are the main reasons that motivate ecotourists and voluntourists.
Ethical and sustainable considerations
Ethics is the theoretical study of acceptable value of an individual conduct, policies and directives that should preside over and which constitute moral beliefs.
Sustainability on the other hand is the process of developing the worth of a person while at the same time strengthening the capability of supporting ecology.
The stakeholders such as WARF, ecotourists, voluntourists and the local communities are concerned with the environmental conservation and generation of revenue from the preservation activities which involve conservation of the natural habitat and the wild animals.
This creates sustainable benefits that are both non-financial and financial for all participants involved in carrying out of the educational programme together with the ecotourism functions.
WARF in Thai produces sustainable income flow from the ecotourists and voluntourists who charge a fee to toil willingly with the local community and take care of the wild animals at the place of protection by the environment reserves.
WARF provides habitat and care for rescued animals before sending them back to the wild. Thus, the wildlife preservation is important because the endurance of the saved animals rely on the environmental state of the natural surroundings from which the wild animals were freed.
For this to be possible combined effort of stakeholders is necessary whose contribution produces shared non-financial and/ financial benefits.
Upholding high-quality association amongst stakeholders is the right approach of managing these ecosystems and this close association is preserved through mutual activities such as (GRP) Gibbon Rehabilitation Project and Volunteer Network Program (West et al 527).
The GRP was established in 1990 at Bang Pae Waterfall, Phuket and Tambon Pa Klok with the mandate to save adult gibbons; this scheme is a tourist attraction in Phuket since the local people used to poach the gibbons from the Island of Phuket in order for tourists to be photographed with them for fee and were abandoned at maturity as they stopped being attractive (West et al 527).
Abandoned gibbons are saved by the GRP as one component of rehabilitation and shifted far from human inhabitant; the project overall objective is to stop the poaching of the young gibbons all together (West et al 527).
To do this the volunteer Network Program relies on donations and support from the participant; the human resources are provided by the local community such the students who carry out research on the animal diseases and their behaviour.
These volunteers comprised mainly of students later on become donors and this gives them a chance to be in contact with the animals. In Cambodia, the conservation project entails endangered species protection and poverty alleviation through the growth of sustainable income flows, particularly ecotourism (West et al 527).
The Cambodian populace is high and subsist in intense poverty; the last decade saw raised restrictions of prohibited logging, forest fires and poaching (West et al 527).
The stakeholders build a sustainable defence arrangement for the Cardamoms responsible for building up alternative employment of the local community.
While the stakeholders such as NGOs that have local information are accountable for strategies preservation, community growth, and project implementation.
In this arrangement the University of Victoria is accountable for scientific contribution, plans and execution while the Jetwing Eco Holidays is liable for controlling ecotourism functions and making it easy to market the general project and Community Based Ecotourism (West et al 527).
The government hold on to specific features of the area conservation, community growth and execution; the government has the responsibility to conserve the forest but it is financially incapable of doing so, this lead to holding up of the project for months, at this particular time ICEBV was taken in to build up a financial way out.
The financing was generated through a mixture of income from ecosystem services, grants and equity investment. Project performance started in August 2008 and ends in 2043 to produce revenue for the investors, these income flows are situated on land owned by ICEBV mostly on the perimeter of the forest.
The ICEBV is progressing to expand and research extra income flows from fee ecology services, together with fee generated from biodiversity and watershed services balance.
Jetwings Eco Holidays, Wildlife Alliance and ICEBV formed an accord by which incomes are shared amongst them and absorbed towards the suitable part of the plan.
To develop ecotourism assets in the growing markets it is important for ICEBV to make sure that public and private projects for investments are complete. ICEBV has provided financial structuring of the activities and the firm has productively supplied private finances for the opening out of two lodges.
Formation of a complete project team is a critical step in building up booming ecotourism assets, based on this ICEBV propped up its team by pulling together a globally renowned medium to small sized hotel workers, an architecture group that determined ecological plan of visitor lodgings and internal administration to make sure that the scheme yardsticks were achieved in a well-timed manner.
By conducting careful due diligence and research on the area which ecotourism plans were going to be developed and by identifying the market to concentrate on which will supply income, the firm was capable of moulding its procedure to the project in general.
Through all these ICEBV is functioning to develop the financial, social capital and ecological of the local society and the project collaborators (West et al 528-529).
Ecotourism is not enough in succeeding to preserve the environment as it is extremely a consumer-centred action and the ecological preservation is a way to advance economic development.
Though ecotourism is designed for small teams, still a reserved increase in populace, though short-term, places additional weight on the local surroundings and demands the expansion of extra amenities and infrastructure.
The building of sanitation facilities, water treatment facilities and accommodations come with utilization of non-renewable power and constrained local resources. The translation of usual land to tourist infrastructure is meant to be a method of deforestation as well; this is apart from ecology deprivation where the infrastructure, general population pressure leaves pollution and garbage behind.
Though ecotourists assert to be educationally refined and environmentally apprehensive, they seldom understand the biological cost of their vacation and how their daily activities constraints the surrounding environment. Therefore, ecotourism actions are issue in ecological impact since they upset fauna and flora ecosystems (West et al 531).
In conclusion, natural resource administration can be used as expert instrument necessary for the expansion of ecotourism; there are numerous places all over the globe where the quantities of natural sources are plentiful but with human being intrusion and habitation these sources are diminishing.
Because of lack of proper knowledge on the use of specific resources, these resources are ruined and the species become wiped out. Therefore, plans and appropriate management action can be initiated with the intention of preserving such resources.
Strategy and Recommendations
In Thai, the stakeholders are concerned with the environmental conservation and generation of revenue from the preservation activities which involve caring for the natural habitation and the wild animals.
This creates sustainable benefits (non-financial and financial benefits) for all participants and also the educational programme together with the ecotourism which benefits the locals.
WARF in Thai is therefore able to produce sustainable cash flow from the ecotourists or voluntourists who pay a fee to work willingly with the local community and take care of the wild animals at their place of protection in the environment reserves and WARF provides houses and care for saved animals.
While in Cambodia, the preservation project entails species defence and poverty alleviation through the growth of sustainable cash flows, particularly ecotourism.
The stakeholders have built a sustainable defence arrangement for the Cardamoms with creation of alternative employment for the local community. The stakeholders such as NGOs that have local information are accountable for strategies preservation, community growth, and project implementation (West et al 530).
On the other hand, Kerala, India sunrise industry has developed and trades in local ornamental fisheries; the government has actively promoted the trade in local ornamentals and is advising local people to work extra so as to earn income from the booming export of tropical fishes.
This mind-set by the government is extremely disappointing and negatively affects the ecosystem of the area. In addition, there is poor comprehension of legal issues of possession and harvest in this section of the globe, as the fisheries for the local ornamentals are wide open, plus deceiving restrictions and quotas and no rules or regulation that governs harvesting of local ornamental fisheries and the government has not made any effort to stop this.
Sufficient time and inclination for supervising and doing research has not been available, which unfavourably impact the planning and functioning of preservation and administration strategy for the local ornamentals.
The stakeholders (local people) dwell in forest and have relied on natural resources together with fish, as source of revenue. To conserve the environment, captive breeding is a key instrument for the preservation of endemic and endangered fish, nonetheless, small-scale and captive breeding aquaculture may operate as an option to wild set or fishing which is conditional to providing sufficient inducements in form of income to relocate and not increase the wild gathering.
Implementation of rearing technologies and captive breeding will lead to a negative impact on the local community who depend on fisheries, since this will raise supply and reduce prices.
Preservation of rare species in developing nations is a costly mission and opportunity cost of ex situ and situ preservation strategies may possibly be high; this makes its economical therefore to have cost-effective strategies like ecotourism areas and protected places which can be promoted to preserve holistic resource administration strategies in order to benefit the communities and natural resources.
Management traditions that are in place needs to support the business and fishery in to a sustainable venture; this will require fishery administration strategy control, ecosystem based administration, technical measures and indirect economical tools that can be utilized with required adjustment to suit regional necessities.
Rules and regulation that govern harvesting of these resources can be achieved by issuing licences but entry rights may be the best strategy that can succeed in the current scenario.
The procedure of giving export licenses and gathering permits ought to be centralized and the amount of orders given out must be severely synchronized by the concerned government organization.
The facts on population volume and biological allocation of rare and widespread natural resources must be reinforced by taking for granted widespread micro regional research.
The familiarity with area of allocation and information on micro-regional traits of the inhabitants of economically sensitive fishes will contribute to preservation efforts of rare species and other aquatic reserves.
Techniques must therefore be industrialised for captive breeding and brood-stock growth of fishes that are of financial importance and which have to be benchmarked with the case for Thai and Cambodian.
Finally, examination on the persistent nature of unusual species in the usual habitats must be approved with a view of finding out what numbers of the species can attain natural breeding populace and how their feeding habit relates with the indigenous species. This requires the performance of committee created under the government of India to monitor and control the rare species preservation to be more effective.
Hubpages.com. “Ecotourism or Voluntourism”, 2011. Web. <https://hubpages.com/>
West, D. Ford, J. and Ibrahim, E. “Strategic Marketing: Creating Competitive Advantage”, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.