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Maternal Healths at Three Periods of Pregnancy Essay

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Updated: May 4th, 2022

Maternal health confers to the health of women at the period of pregnancy, during birth and the postpartum. At this time, many mothers are associated with a lot of suffering and deteriorated health which can result in death. The common causes of this ill-health during the motherhood period are; high blood pressure, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, unsafe abortion, and other infections which normally lead to mortality and morbidity (Yonath & Frydman 2012).

These deaths mostly happen during the birth period or immediately after childbirth. In Papua New Guinea, an estimate of 50 million people does suffer from insufficient intake of vitamin A. It occurs when fruit and vegetable intake and even sometimes when fat intake is low. Haerens (2012, p.78) claims that deficiency leads to childhood blindness, and also lowers the resistance of the body to infectious diseases which eventually raise morbidity and mortality rates. These are some examples of infections, respiratory infections, measles, and diarrhea.

Hauner & Strohm (2012, p.43) found out that ‘poor nutrition status is associated with delivery problem and prevalence of anemia and growth retardation’. Poor health affects fertility and productivity by lowering the adults’ physical and intellectual performance. This leads to impairing the national population. Malnutrition also causes a lack of iron in the body (Haerens 2012, p.78). Among the refugees and other vulnerable fall pray of deficiencies of elements like zinc, and selenium which in turn leads to outbreak of scurvy, pellagra and beriberi (Buonocore 2012, p. 89). Besides, cricket affects a significant numbers of children in most areas. The private sector, international organization, non-profit making organization, government, and local communities can contribute to the initiatives designed to curb the nutrition challenge (Masatlioglu, et al 2007, P.654). The government of Papua New Guinea can contribute through agricultural, health, educational sectors and social welfare. This can be achieved by increasing the nutritional impact of their respective sectoral policies, and projects. The objectives are achieved in light of inter-sectoral cooperation through resource availability and need. On the other hand, non-profit making organization mostly foster formulated activities at the community-based level to address this menace (Adams & Ferraro 2012, p.9998).

These agencies supply food to the household and maintain food security throughout the year (Bruce 2012, p.139). The private sectors in Papua New Guinea that own production firms also contribute by ensuring that consumer is protected through high quality and chemical-free products (Maynes 2012, p.100). Maynes (2012, p. 100) suggests that consumers should also be advised on hygienic food handling. Education and training are also conducted at the grass root level to reach rural residents. Eradication of poverty can be addressed successfully by equitable distribution of economic development to promote better health, family planning services and education. The country can also provide products at low prices in addition to food aid (Bird & Sepherd 2012, p. 102). The provision of food at cheaper prices may allow pursuit of programs that make food available, particularly among rural and urban residents (Crumpler, 2008). This also relieves the balance of payments experienced by a country to some extent (Hulme 2012, p18). However poor families not only need good incomes but also information and education to improve the nutritional status of their wellbeing (Mcclure 2012, p.9). For ensuring that the nutrition interventions become effective in the light of general and national development, programs should be taken seriously. National income growth can boost the standard of living among the individual and their nutritional welfare (Smedeing & Weinberg 2012 p.19).

References

Adams, K & Ferraro, P 2012,’ Protected areas reduced poverty in Costa Rica and Thailand’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.107 no.22 pp. 9996-10001.

Bird K & Sepherd A 2012, ‘Livelihoods and Chronic Poverty in Semi-Arid Zimbabwe’, World Development Vol.31 no.3 pp. 591-610.

Bruce, T 2012, ‘Tackling the threat to food security caused by crop pests in the new millennium’, Food security, Vol. 2 no.2, pp. 133-141.

Buonocore,G 2012, Neonatology a practical approach to neonatal diseases, Springer, Milan.

Crumpler, H, J 2008, ‘Borderline personality disorder: gender stereotypes,2012 stigma, and limited system of care’ 2012, Issues Ment Health Nurs, Vol.19, p. 97-112.

Haerens, M 2012, Malnutrition, Greenhaven Press, Detrit MI.

Hauner, M & Strohm, D 2012, ‘Evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society: carbohydrate intake and prevention of nutrition-related diseases’, Annals of Nutrition & Maternal health; the fact 2012, General Books, S.I.

Hulme, D 2012, ‘Chronic Poverty and Development Policy: An Introduction’, World Development, Vol.31 no.3 pp. 399-402.

Maynes, E 2012,’Consumer protection: The issues’, Journal of Consumer Policy.Vol.3 no.2 pp. 97-109.

Mcclure, C 2012, ‘Promoting education for information resources management in the federal government’, Government Information Quarterly, Vol.12 no.1 pp. 1-11.

Smedeing T, & Weinberg, D 2012, ‘Toward a Uniform Definition of Household Income’, the Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 47 no. 1pp. 1-24.

Masatlioglu, et al 2007 Public Health Nutrition, Vol.10, P. 652-662.

Yonath, H & Frydman, M 2012, ‘Carrier state for the nebulin exon 55 deletion and abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings as potential signs of nemaline myopathy’, Prenatal Diagnosis, Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 70-74.

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