Definition of the major DSM IV-TR categories of substance-related, schizophrenia and psychosis, and mood/affective disorders
The DSN-IV-TR identifies commonly abused drugs such as heroin, amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana. The DSM’s substance abuse matrix widely defines the terms abuse and dependence in a similar manner across the substances. Dependence refers to a maladaptive sequence with an indication of distress or impairment.
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At least three of the following elements of dependence occur within a twelve-month period: tolerance, withdrawal, unintentional use of bigger quantities, lack of the ability to control use, difficulty in obtaining, using, or recovering from the substance, lack of enthusiasm on crucial matters in life, and persistent use of the drug in spite of use-related physical or psychological setbacks.
Abuse, on the other hand, refers to the effects related to substance use. At least one of the following elements of abuse occurs within a twelve-month timeframe: diminished sense of responsibility, persistent dangerous behavior, persistent legal problems, and persistent drug use in spite of the socio-interpersonal issues arising from the same (Mack & Frances, 2003; Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.55).
The main schizophrenic symptoms include stereotyped mannerisms, hallucinations and delusions. The DSM-IV-TR entails at least two of the following: negative symptoms, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, hallucinations, and delusions.
The DSM-IV-TR, however, requires only one symptom where hallucinations involve conversions among voices, or delusions are bizarre. The symptoms should persist for a month, with continued signs identified for at least six months. This is regardless of the absence or presence of prodromal or residual symptoms.
The DSM commonly defines affective disorders as major disruptions of affect and moods (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.97). The DSM also includes symptom patterns ranging from mild to moderate depressive sequences to psychotic affective responses.
Examination of the various classifications of substance-related, schizophrenia and psychosis, mood affective disorders
Psychotic reactions commonly lead to brain disruption because of physical causes such as a nervous breakdown, brain injury, circulation problem, or toxic chemical reactions. Functional psychoses are the most prevalent. There are three chief categories of functional psychoses: paranoid, schizophrenic and mood (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.80). The mood disorders usually involve severe mood changes and related interruption of thought and behavior.
The DSM-IV-TR enlists five subtypes of schizophrenia: residual, undifferentiated, catatonic, disorganized, and paranoid (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.81). The symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia include disorderly speech and behavior, and improper affect.
Catatonic schizophrenia involves severe psychomotor interruption, or patterns of withdrawal or excitement. Undifferentiated schizophrenia relates to various symptoms and is the common ultimate diagnosis used in chronic cases. Paranoid schizophrenia involves occasional auditory hallucinations and delusions.
The main categories on the DSM are Bipolar Depression, Major Depression, and the specific affective disorders (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.97). Major Depressive Disorder involves severe depression. Normal depression involves short periods of dejection, grief, or sadness, with minimal disturbance of normal functioning.
Substance related disorders comprise of commonly abused substances such as heroin, amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.154; Mack & Frances, 2003). They also comprise of nicotine and caffeine disorders, though these are particularly significant pre-determiners of other types of chronic substance abuse. Other types include polysubstance use, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, phencyclidine, inhalants, and hallucinogens.
Hansell, J. & Damour, L. (2008). Abnormal Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Mack, A.H. & Frances, R.J. (2003). Substance-Related Disorders. FOCUS, 1(2):125- 146. Web.