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Multimedia Presentation Usage in Flipped Classrooms Report

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Updated: Dec 15th, 2020

Abstract

Background

Technology has created vast opportunities for advancing pedagogy and building the setting in which students are highly motivated and very productive in their work. However, numerous options that innovative technology and especially IT provides are yet to be explored. For instance, the integration of multimedia presentations into the contemporary academic setting and particularly into the environment of flipped classrooms requires a thorough analysis.

Goals

The goals of the paper include studying the nature of FC, their advantages and disadvantages, determining the notion of MP, their components, benefits, and problems, and locating the effects that the identified stools have on students’ ability to learn, think critically, socialize, and communicate both within and outside the classroom.

Research Question

The study seeks to answer the following question: “How does the application of multimedia presentations in flipped classrooms affect literacy practices, students’ perceptions, and social behaviors in the classroom and outside of it?”

Expected Outcomes

It is believed that the adoption of the MP-based technique in an FC environment will contribute vastly to the enhancement of students’ academic and social skills. This paper posits that the use of MP in the FC setting helps to promote autonomy in students, encourages them to think critically and creatively, fosters communication skills in the target demographic, and sets the stage for the further development, both within the classroom environment and outside of it.

Introduction

Technology has altered the landscape of modern communication entirely, and the changes to all domains of people’s interactions are still taking place. Education is no exception to the specified phenomenon, technological innovations being applied to all facets of teaching and learning, and both incremental and non-incremental technology being explored in-depth as possible tools in teaching and learning (Watts & Ibrahim, 2015).

The effects that innovative informational technologies (IT) have on students and the learning process, in general, are twofold. On the one hand, these IT tools are deployed successfully to improve the quality of teaching and assist students in addressing particular learning challenges, such as the need to memorize a vast amount of data (Lin, Hwang, Fu, & Chen, 2018). On the other hand, the application of IT in the classroom also implies a change in learners’ social skills and the use of social practices.

Therefore, the goal of this review is to study the effects that particular innovative technology has on learners’ academic and social skills, as well as the changes that students experience in their communication with the application of these technologies. This paper seeks to answer the following question: the technologies of flipped classrooms (FC) and multimedia presentations (MPs) and their effects on students’ perceptions of communication, as well as their social behaviors both in the classroom and outside of it.

Flipped Classrooms: Definition and Characteristics

Although having been introduced comparatively recently, the idea of flipped classrooms itself does not imply the active use of technologically advanced tools. Instead, it provides a different perspective on the idea of training skills and applying theories to resolving practical issues (Watts & Ibrahim, 2015). However, with the integration of IT devices into the academic setting, the concept of FC has gained a new meaning and extended the opportunities for teaching students.

Due to the opportunities that IT tools provide for managing information and transferring it, the phenomenon of flipped classrooms has given chances for both improving students’ academic skills and extending their social ones. The application of tools such as concept maps, in turn, will allow students to navigate the process (see Appendix A).

The concept of a flipped classroom (FC) implies that the activities that are traditionally regarded as home assignments and analyzing them in the school setting. With the integration of IT into the FC framework, educators received a chance to coordinate the work of students more effectively, at the same time ensuring that the issues associated with assignments are discussed thoroughly and managed respectively (Çevikbaş & Argün, 2017).

The resulting rise in communication, including cooperation between students and the learner-teacher dialogue has opened a vast array of possibilities for learning (O’Flaherty & Phillips, 2015). Specifically, direct feedback with the further introduction of a learner-specific approach, as well as the promotion of autonomy among learners by placing emphasis on peer assessment, can be seen as critical aspects of the FC setting (O’Flaherty & Phillips, 2015). Therefore, FC as a tool for encouraging communication within the academic setting and outside of it warrants an in-depth exploration.

Multimedia Presentations and Their Opportunities

Along with the changes to shift the roles, the integration of the latest technological tools, including multimedia content, has emerged. The use of multimedia allows making even the mundane elements of classroom activities such as presentations new and exciting. MPs as a specimen of innovative technology and IT allow making FL activities much more engaging for students and enhancing the learning process (Vazquez & Chiang, 2016). Particularly, due to the introduction of the elements that invite students to interact with MPs as opposed to being passive viewers, deserves especially close attention.

Among the MP tools that should be seen as the specimens of stellar integration of IT tools and traditional media to enhance learning, one should mention Prezi (Chou, Chang, & Lu, 2015). Prezi as online software helps arrange all available data, including visual and audial information, into a single experience that learners in the FC will perceive as the incentive to start a dialogue (Martin & Carr, 2015). Similar tools will have to be incorporated into the learning process to prompt critical and organized thinking in students (Yilmaz, 2017).

Moreover, using Prezi as the basis for home assignments will motivate learners to be creative in solving tasks and representing their arguments (Ilhan& Oruç, 2016). MPs offer a plethora of chances for engaging students and rearranging their thinking process, thus improving their academic skills.

Multimedia Presentations in Flipped and Regular Classrooms

The application of multimedia presentations in FC is quite different from their use in the traditional academic setting. While the application of MPs in the traditional classroom environment is also critical to the effective learning process, it serves an especially important function in the FC context (Simpson & Richards, 2015). Particularly, the MP tool allows students to map their progress and ensure that they are fully aware of the goals of the lesson, their role in it, and the principles according to which they should accomplish the tasks (Watts & Ibrahim, 2015). Particularly, the peer assessment techniques will require the presence of consistent guidelines that students will follow.

The adoption of MPs in the FC context will also help approach the issue of the autonomy myth delicately and balance between encouraging learners’ independence and supervising their progress closely. According to the tenets of the theory of the autonomy myth, the idea of autonomy as a notion is tenuous at best (Sun, Xie, & Anderman, 2018). However, by defying learners their autonomy in the academic setting, one is likely to discourage them from participating actively in the FC setting and discussing the issues that may pose significant obstacles in their future learning (Vazquez & Chiang, 2016).

The adoption of the selected combination of FC and MPs, in turn, will encourage students to recognize the intrinsic connection and dependence between the work of each member of the system, at the same time realizing that they play a unique role in it.

Theoretical Frameworks

In order to explore the effects of IT and its application both within a classroom and outside of it on students’ ability to learn and socialize, one will need to deploy several theoretical frameworks. Thus, one will be able to examine the effects of the proposed strategies on changes in learners’ perceptions from a pedagogical standpoint and a sociological stance. In the case under analysis, one will need to consider both traditional theories such as the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), and more recent ones, such as the Conceptual Design Framework. As a result, a profound assessment of the changes that students will experience will be possible.

Conceptual Design Framework

The Conceptual Design Framework (CDF) allows determining the outcomes of using IT tools by teachers on students’ ability to acquire knowledge. CDF is a framework that allows for embracing different aspects of the learning and teaching process (Holmberg, 2017). Therefore, its integration into the analysis will help define the effects that the use of MPs in C will have on learners.

Personalized System of Instruction (PSI)

The adoption of the PSI technique, in turn, should be regarded as a crucial element of the analysis. The PSI theoretical approach allows exploring the differences in knowledge representation that can be observed during the interactions between learners, as well as during the dialogue between a student and a teacher (Arnold-Garza, 2014). Therefore, the proposed framework needs to be integrated into the analysis.

Design-Based Research (DBR)

The application of CDF enables one to adopt a Design-Based Research strategy (DBR), which helps to build an intrinsic understanding of the manner in which a particular academic program is implemented within the selected setting. Due to the focus on the evidence-based analysis, the proposed technique is expected to produce a vastly positive effect on the analysis and help to obtain crucial results.

Review of Literature

Changes in Social Practices: Effects of Multimedia Technology and Flipped Classrooms

Studies show that the integration of technological innovations into the FC settings has a profoundly positive effect on students’ ability to communicate and apply critical thinking. The issue of peer assessments should be mentioned as one of the critical aspects of the proposed technique that will entail inevitable positive changes in social practices. Specifically, the application of MPs in the FC environment will help learners to explore different social roles. For instance, in the course of using multimedia tools, students will develop the critical skills that will define their ability to process information, share it with peers, and use it to solve problems both in class and as a home assignment (Hwang, Lai, & Wang, 2015).

Furthermore, in regard to the illusion of autonomy discussed above, the MP tools used in the FC setting will help learners recognize not only the intrinsic fallacy in the notion of complete autonomy but also recognize the necessity to depend on each other during teamwork. In the grand scheme of the situation, the scenario involving the use of MPs in the FC environment will encourage learners to cooperate and communicate productively, building their teamwork-related skills.

Moreover, it is likely that the integration of MPs in the FC setting will help students differentiate between their efforts as team members and their personal growth (Vazquez & Chiang, 2016). Thus, the dilemma regarding the autonomy will be partially resolved since the students will perceive the academic process is a cooperation between them and their peers.

It could be argued that the role of a teacher will be reduced since the MP use will imply the minimization of teacher’s commentaries concerning the assignments. However, the role of an educator should not be underrated in the described scenario, either. Particularly, a teacher should adopt scaffolding techniques that will allow students to be proactive during the lesson, at the same time receiving support and assistance from a teacher (Daly, Bulloch, Ma, & Aidulis, 2016). Thus, the significance of cooperation and the promotion of a certain degree of autonomy within the setting of teamwork and collaboration will be possible.

Changes in Students’ Perception: Multimedia Technology in Flipped Classrooms

The application of MPs will also cause a significant shift in students’ perception of learning and communication. According to the existing evidence, multimedia both engage learners and invite them to reconsider their roles in the classroom environment (Basal, 2015). As a result, students can participate as not only team members but also leaders, mediators, and researchers, trying every possible role and acquiring the related communication skills.

Learners’ perception of the information that they receive is also bound to change as MPs are integrated into the FC context. For instance, studies show that the incorporation of multimedia elements into the university setting leads to an increase in both the levels of comprehension among target audiences and the rates of information retention (Vazquez & Chiang, 2016). Consequently, the use of multimedia and especially MPs causes a gradual yet massive change in students’ interpretation of studied subjects and their significance (Lee, 2014). Therefore, researches indicate that the use of multimedia is critical to promoting learners’ motivation and changing their stance on the process of learning, in general.

Changes in Social Behaviors: Multimedia Technology in Flipped Classrooms

The use of multimedia in the context of FC is also known to produce a shift in learners’ interactions and communication patterns. Research proves that, by including multimedia and particularly MPs into the classroom setting, educators instigate a change in the classroom dynamics, causing learners to converse more frequently and actively (DeLozier & Rhodes, 2017). Moreover, the adoption of the proposed technique incites the change in the conflict dynamics among students since they switch from the subjective interpretation of a confrontation to a more objective one (Block, Radley, Jenson, Clark, & O’Neill, 2015). As a result, learners tend to seek a solution to a conflict rather than aggravating the situation with aggression.

Discussion

Addressing Possible Negative Consequences and Maximizing Positive Outcomes

The review of the existing literature has shown that the application of MPs produces an especially powerful impact on learners in the FC set. The phenomenon of MPs leading to better performances among students in FC can be explained by the focus on collaboration and peer support that it provides, as well as the unique challenges that the MP technology offers to students (Surjono, 2015).

Moreover, the adoption of the MP tools in the FC environment is also likely to challenge learners’ perception of studying and communication outside the school environment For instance, with the promotion of a reasonable amount of learner autonomy, students will be able to develop the curiosity needed to gain motivation toward critical thinking and creativity (Leow & Neo, 2014). Apart from helping learners to excel in their academic life, the application of MPs and the use of software such as Prezi will help students to communicate by sharing information and experiences, as well as engaging in emotional discussions of the provided material.

As the review has shown, the issue of autonomy can also be addressed by introducing a middle ground between giving students the full agency and providing rigid supervision of their academic progress. By inviting learners to view the academic setting and their individual learning processes as a mechanism in which each part performs a crucial function, one will foster both a more profound understanding of learning and the importance of cooperation in students (Schrader & Rapp, 2016).

The review has also shown that the adoption of the proposed techniques affects students’ ability to perceive different types of information, thus enriching their experience and having a profound impact on their communication skills. By integrating the elements of verbal and non-verbal communication into MPs, an educator fosters the idea of multifaceted learning in students and invites them to experience the process of learning as a complex phenomenon that requires its every participant to deliver the performance of the appropriate level.

Among the key gaps in the literature, one should mention the lack of focus on how MPs should be integrated into FC. While the positive effects on MPs in the classroom environment are described in detail, the strategies for incorporating MPs into an FC lesson could use more elaboration. Therefore, addressing the specified gaps and studying the strategies for introducing MPs into the FC environment should be seen as an important area of research.

Therefore, it is expected that the application of MPs in the FC context will allow changing students’ perspectives on learning and communication to a considerable degree. In addition, a gradual change in learners’ social behaviors is expected to occur. Due to the promotion of critical and creative thinking, as well as the emphasis on teamwork, which MPs in the FC setting promote, learners are expected to manage conflicts in communication more effectively. For instance, students will accept the roles of leaders and peacemakers by using the skills in shifting from one role to another that they will gain during classes.

Moreover, given the fact that numerous studies view analytical thinking as one of the key effects of MPs in FC, students are expected to extrapolate their skills to manage complex social situations and approach confrontations objectively. The described change does not imply that students will be denied the chance to explore their emotions; quite the contrary, self-directed analysis will be encouraged. However, instead of viewing conflict as a means to an end, using it as a source of important knowledge about them, their opponents, and conflict management will be fostered.

Discussion

Synergetic Use of Innovative Technology: Opportunities in Multimedia Technology and Flipped Classrooms

Synergy is a crucial aspect of using IT and particularly MPs in the classroom. As the study by Spector (2014) explains, the application of IT tools in the classroom setting provides a chance to establish synergetic principles as the platform for further learning. The adoption of MPs will allow for a seamless transition to the synergetic environment in which students will adjust to using MPs quickly. The proposed approach will create opportunities for game-based learning, which will entice learners into participating and will build their motivation levels accordingly (Spector, 2014).

Possible Challenges and the Means of Managing Them

The adoption of MPs in the FC environment is likely to lead to vastly positive outcomes among learners due to the focus on communication and cooperation. By emphasizing the importance of peer support, educators will encourage learners to change their current behaviors. Furthermore, learners will be able to embrace the unique characteristics of their personalities and grow both as students and as members of society to improve the quality of their interactions.

The shift in behaviors will also imply the promotion of scientific curiosity and the development of academic inquiry (Bae, Kim, Kim, & So, 2015). Thus, the students are highly likely to gain impressive success in both their academic endeavors and social communication.

Teachers, in turn, should assume the role of a support system, mediators, and supervisors, yet their primary goal will be to act as educators. Encouraging learners and building their motivation, at the same time scaffolding them toward the further acquisition of critical skills should be deemed as the top priority for educators (Jensen, Kummer, & Godoy, 2015). Thus, a gradual change in the contemporary academic setting will be expected. However, the analysis of the literature on the topic of MPs in FC has sparked other questions. For example, the means of controlling changes in students’ behavior and introducing a student-specific approach remain unknown. Therefore, it will be necessary to study the methods of ensuring learners’ progress and gearing them toward the expected results.

Conclusion

With the advent of innovative IT and disruptive technologies that have affected every domain of communication, the importance of applying them in the academic setting has grown exponentially. Among the key effects that the specified changes have helped introduce, the multifaceted nature of learning serves a particularly important mission.

By integrating multimedia, in general, and MPs, in particular into the environment of C, a teacher will be able to encourage a significant shift in learners’ perceptions of their academic endeavors, their communication with peers and teachers, and the process of social interactions on a larger scale. Using MPs as a foundation for encouraging dialogue within the FC setting, a teacher will be able to control the process of students’ independent learning. Furthermore, the application of MPs in the FC environment will open students to the possibilities of the multicultural dialogue due to the introduction of several modes of communication in MPs.

Reflection

The overview of the studies shows that the promotion of MPs in FC should be seen as a crucial component of contemporary education. By including the described approach into the array of strategies used in the modern academic setting, one will build the framework for fostering academic and personal development in learners. Thus, next time, the application of the designed technique will lead to the enhancement of students’ ability to think critically, develop motivation for further learning, and participate actively during the learning process will have to be studied. The designed technique will become the basis for creating a synergetic approach toward learning and assisting students in the process of personal growth.

References

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Bae, J., Kim, J., Kim, E., & So, K. H. (2015). The effect of elementary free inquiry lessons utilizing flipped learning with smart devices on the elementary students’ digital literacy, 21st century skills and scientific attitude. Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education, 34(4), 476-485.

Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16(4), 28-37.

Block, H. M., Radley, K. C., Jenson, W. R., Clark, E., & O’Neill, R. E. (2015). Effects of a multimedia social skills program in increasing social responses and initiations of children with autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 3(1), 16-24.

Çevikbaş, M., & Argün, Z. (2017). An innovative learning model in digital age: Flipped classroom. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(11), 189-200.

Chou, P. N., Chang, C. C., & Lu, P. F. (2015). Prezi versus PowerPoint: The effects of varied digital presentation tools on students’ learning performance. Computers & Education, 91, 73-82.

Daly, C. J., Bulloch, J. M., Ma, M., & Aidulis, D. (2016). A comparison of animated versus static images in an instructional multimedia presentation. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(2), 201-205.

DeLozier, S. J., & Rhodes, M. G. (2017). Flipped classrooms: A review of key ideas and recommendations for practice. Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), 141-151.

Holmberg, J. (2017). Applying a conceptual design framework to study teachers’ use of educational technology. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2333-2349.

Hwang, G. J., Lai, C. L., & Wang, S. Y. (2015). Seamless flipped learning: A mobile technology-enhanced flipped classroom with effective learning strategies. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(4), 449-473.

Ilhan, G. O., & Oruç, S. (2016). Effect of the use of multimedia on students’ performance: A case study of social studies class. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(8), 877-882.

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Martin, F., & Carr, M. L. (2015). An exploratory study on K-12 teachers’ use of technology and multimedia in the classroom. Journal of Educational Technology, 12(1), 7-14.

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Sun, Z., Xie, K., & Anderman, L. H. (2018). The role of self-regulated learning in students’ success in flipped undergraduate math courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 36, 41-53.

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Watts, A., & Ibrahim, M. (2015). Examining the effects of employing various multimedia tools in a flipped classroom on pre-service teachers’ self efficacy and knowledge application abilities. In EdMedia: World conference on educational media and technology (pp. 971-977). Las Vegas, NV: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in flipped classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 251-260.

Appendix A (University of South Dakota, n.d.)

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