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Interpersonal Relationships between Negotiators
The relationship between Gandhi and Jinnah started in their youth, when Jinnah was actively looking to mobilize Muslims to lobby for the development of a special relationship with the colonists so that they could develop an independent state (Dar 137). Gandhi, on the other hand, was looking to enhance his influence on the entire nation because he believed that both Muslims and Hindus had the potential to collaborate in forming an administration that would efficiently enhance the quality of life for everyone by engaging in economy building and setting up political systems to foster harmony in the society.
Jinnah’s youth was characterized with various attempts to increase his influence on the society. He encountered Gandhi in several occasions, but their political journeys diverged as Gandhi’s talent in leadership was polished by his father and the people around him. Gandhi was the man of the people, whereas Jinnah was looking to lure people into supporting his radical ideologies. The rivalry between the two leaders was a function of the different futuristic ideologies that they had, with respect to the relationship between Hindus and Muslims in the British colony (Parveen 134). Gandhi was always ready to help the nation to gain independence from the British, but Jinnah’s main focus was to have Muslims being separated from their counterparts to implement self-governance. The interpersonal relationship between the two leaders had an influence on the resultant relationship between India and Pakistan, whereby citizens of the respective states have always pursued partisan interests and engaged each other in minimal diplomatic negotiations because they are aware of the differences in their political ideologies.
Gandhi’s mandate entailed a proposal for the Muslim portion of the society to accept a provisional government given by the British for the nation to gain independence. After his release from prison on 5th May 1944, Gandhi made contact with Jinnah to talk about the prevailing conflict of interest between them. He presented the CR formula which would facilitate negotiations between the two parties. Gandhi rejected Jinnah’s opinion that the Indian Muslims constituted a separate country. He insisted that India was a family represented by many members of which Muslims were part and parcel.
Jinnah’s mandate revealed that he wanted the entire population to recognize that Muslims made up their state, and they deserved independence from both the British and India. Jinnah rejected the CR formula citing that the split up could not be actualized. He also indicated that he felt both Hindus and Muslims voting did not support the Muslims in their quest of establishing an independent state (Singh 285).
Gandhi suggested the formation of a treaty of separation to facilitate collaboration between the two societies in the future. The talks did not succeed in harmonizing the two communities. The ruling viceroy was convinced that Gandhi and Jinnah’s approach of uniting the Hindus and Muslims was not going to work (Parveen 142).
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was a very influential stakeholder in the political quest of both Gandhi and Jinnah. He was an ardent follower of Gandhi as well as a prominent Congress leader. He nevertheless contemplated the fact that Congress should not get opposed to the Muslim demand of partitioning of India. However, he faced severe opposition from the Congress which made him resign from Congress under the advice of Gandhi.
The Muslim league of 1906 that got established to protect the interest and aspirations of the Muslims was also a significant stakeholder in the negotiations. A disagreement between the league and the Congress led to a political conflict that further led to the formation of the Lahore resolution in 1940. Britain was also a high stakeholder as at the time India was under its rule (Guha 53). The British government was the primary external stakeholder because it had established its rule over India. Britain was looking toward granting independence to India, and it required the two political leaders to come to a consensus on the type of government to be formed after independence.
Relationship between Gandhi and Jinnah
Gandhi and Jinnah became integral parts of the quest for freedom for their followers, but they were different in many aspects. Gandhi was born in a prominent social environment because his father was a prime minister, but Jinnah was born in a normal family and only gained political power through protests. The two had met before the negotiation period, but they never agreed on each other’s quests and doctrines. It is apparent that the society viewed Jinnah as an extremist who was quite aggressive in his quest for political success, whereas Gandhi was portrayed as a compassionate leader. Jinnah made his political campaigns in the rural areas of India, whereas Gandhi was a state figure, owing to his background. Their first meeting was in 1915 in a ceremony where Gandhi was being welcomed from South Africa. Jinnah was the chairman of a committee set to welcome Gandhi. In his speech, Gandhi recognized the presence of a Muslim in his community, who was willing to take part in various political courses to enhance the quality of life for the people. Gandhi always showed that he subscribed to various stereotypes, with reference to religion, whereas Jinnah assumed a passive approach on the matter. This is one of the reasons that they two leaders were not compatible in negotiations.
Dar, Farooq Ahmad. “Jinnah and the Lahore Resolution.” Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, vol. 52, no. 1, 2015, pp. 127-155.
Guha, Ramachandra. India after Gandhi. Pan Books, 2017.
Parveen, Kausar. “Nature of Indian politics before 1947.” Pakistan Vision, vol. 14, no. 1, 2013, pp. 130-182.
Singh, Amarjit. “Gandhi and the Muslims of India: A Study on the Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ, vol. 13, no. 12, 2017, pp. 281-289.