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Network Reconnaissance Using Command Line Research Paper

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Updated: May 4th, 2022

Nslookup

Nslookup is network administration tool that uses command lines to query the Domain Name Server for Internet Protocol (IP) or internet address.

Nslookup uses two modes when querying the Domain Name Server, that is, the interactive mode and the non-interactive mode. The interactive mode is open and enables one to query the name servers for details concerning the various domains and hosts, or print an inventory hosts that are contained in a domain. While the non-interactive mode prints the information requested and the name of the specified domain or host (Mattord, 2009).

The command (nslookup) enters works through the interactive mode when no arguments are stated, or when the in itial argument is a – (negative sign) and the following argument is the server’s internet address name or the host name. In the event that there are no arguments indicated, the tool queries the default name server. The – (negative sign) brings into play a subcommand that is considered optional (Option… variable). In exception of some commands e.g. the set command, the subcommands are indicated on the command line should come after the nslookup command arguments. Alternatively, the option of the set subcommand may be indicated in the.nslookuprc file home directory of the user’s (Mattord, 2009).

Non-interactive mode is executed when the initial argument is the internet address or the name of the host that is being searched. The internet address or the name of the server in this case is optional.

The name server parameter looks up information of the indicated host name server or the default name server, this is so in the non-interactive mode by using its commands.

NB: if indicated in the.nslookuprc file the directory of the name user’s, the set subcommands srchlist, domain, defname and search options may impact the activity of the non-interactive mode (Belohlavek, 2005).

Ping

Ping can be described as an administration utility of a computer network that is applied testing how reachable a host is on an Internet Protocol network. It also serves to measure the round-trip time for information sent from a sender to a recipient computer. Pinging also includes sending of an echo request to the recipient computer, it also sends an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The recipient computers then sends back a response from a gate away or host (Glenn, 2011).

The ping command is often useful for:

  • Managing, measuring and networks
  • Isolating and tracking and software and hardware problems
  • In determination of the network status and various foreign hosts

In the event that the host is on the network and is operational, it will respond to the sent echo. Every of the request echoes have ICMP header and an Internet Protocol (IP) proceeded by a ping PID as well as a timeval structure which is also accompanied by enough bytes that are able to fill out the packet. However, due to the continuous sending of echo requests by the sender computer, there may be a load of requests that may slow the system and thus the requests should primarily be used to isolate problems (Jan G, 2003).

NB: The default is fundamentally to send echo requests continuously until an interrupt is received. The interrupt key is CTRL-C and may be changed by the use of sty command.

In pinging, a single datagram per second is sent and one line of output is printed for every response that is received. It is this way that the ping command works out round-trip times as well as display the packet loss statistics after which it displays a surmise on completion (Jan G, 2003).

In exception of a SIGNIT signal receipt, the ping command only completes when the program times out. The parameter of the host is either an Internet address or a host name.

Traceroute

Traceroute is a debugging tool used in a network path. The major role of the traceroute tool is known to be finding of a place in the path between the two communicating computers that may be in any way halting or slowing communication. Traceroute also serves to list all the intermediate routers that form the channel of communication between the two identified systems (Inc Icon Group International, 2008).

Using the Protocol version 6, one is also able to route loose sources along host-lists and tracing of round-trip paths. Tracerout will display a router’s network, name and geographical location if in case the router has a Domain Name Services entry. It can also be run Microsoft Windows machines and Apple Macintosh machines.

The only problem with using tracerout is that the packets path sent are likely to change during the point of tracing. Apart from that, it generates twice as many numbers of packets as it does the number of hops (Inc Icon Group International, 2008).

It also takes an excessive amount of time and packets in the completion of duplication of every successive packet.

Web Reconnaissance Using a Web Browser

Organizational Information Collection

After the entering the IP address and or the DNS, the web browser searches and displays a web page. Through the use of Mozilla Firefox, the source page is displayed through the clicking of page source option in the view option at the tool bar.

The source page mainly comprise of HTML codes that were used in the designing of the web page, through the page, one can go through the page and get the codes to locate any information that one may be looking for that was put there by the designer of the web pages (L, 2001).

Gathering WHOIS Information with Web Browser

Describe the purpose of WHOIS utility

Whois is a system that is used to query a data base containing the IP addresses, an autonomous system or domain names that are allowed to access a certain internet resource. It can also be used for some other purposes especially in the querying and response to databases. The use of the system, whois has developed over time to include the following:

It assists in the identifying of the authors of the information in the web pages that a given user is having. This can help researchers and concerned students to authenticate any academic content displayed on any web page and thus help them figure out on whether to use it or not as a resource. This is important considering the emerging trend of people having web pages in the internet in order to attract traffic and be paid by Google for adverts (Dini, 2005).

The whois system also can be used to as a security measure. One is able to know whether a page may be containing a virus.

The system helps in the determination of registration status of the domain names. This assists network administrators and operators in the locating and accessing any other relevant information they would wish to acquire from the user (Reed, 2008).

It acts to provide confidence to users of eth internet as they view the internet as safe since the whois system has features that aid in the making of the internet safe. It provides contact points or administrators and operators including ISP’s.

Whois system helps in the maintenance of the enforcement of international and national laws by the relevant authorities. Some countries involve specialized non-governmental parties in the work.

The system helps users to combat fraud which helps in the safeguarding of the public’s interest.

It assists in the combating of abusive sources by some users who disregard or abuse Information Technology and Information Communication Technology (Reed, 2008).

The system also assists to counter intellectual infringement and the various steps trademark research.

Find out as much as possible information regarding the target system

Through the use of the whois system one is able to get information concerning the web page or information concerning the author and the content of the same. Since whois is a system that queries and sends response back to the user, it in a large way brings into the fore a perfect platform with which people can use to acquire any necessary information concerning the target system. The information that one can get include author of the information, the Internet Protocol, the Domain name and also the location of the user (Mark Crovella, 2010).

Web Reconnaissance Using Sam Spade

Gathering Web Site information with Sam Spade

Gathering information concerning a website through the use of Sam Spade is user. It’s easy and quick considering the speed with which this system uses in the acquisition of information being sort out by the user. On the tool bar, Sam Spade prompts the user with the following options which aid in the finding of information about a website. The system offers other tools that can aid in the process like command driven options of search tools e.g. nslookup, whois, traceroute finger among other are located in the tools options. This means that one can get access to the information that one can regularly get from these tools independently making Sam Spade a more efficient and better than these individual tools. It is also important and a better tool since it is uses the graphic interface as compared to the earlier command search tools which use the command lines in their activities (Mattord, 2009).

Web Crawling with Sam Spade

Web crawling using Sam Spade is far better than using any other programs because of the several tools that it provides for the crawling. Web crawling is a complicated activity which sometimes consumes a lot of time. But with Sam Spade, the process takes less time and is more effective putting into consideration the several made available by Sam Spade (Mattord, 2009).

Gathering WHOIS Information with Sam Spade

In Sam Spade, the whois button is found in the tools button with other tools including treaceroute, nslookkup and ping. Sam Spade runs whois request against the server indicated in the option server box in the option bar. Whois are normally maintained by the local and regional internet regulators thus is in a better position to supply information about the host maintained the local regulators. As such, using Sam Spade to operate whois system gives the user an easy and quick plus a friendly use of the whois system (Odom, 2004).

DNS Query Using Sam Spade

An advantage of using Sam Spade in DNS querying is that one is able to query one tool by the use of another. This gives Sam Spade a unique ability as compared to other query command tools used in the identification of server addresses, Internet Protocol and the domain names.

The DNS button in the Sam Spade is used to perfume the duty of snlookup command prompt as per the host that was indicated in the address bar. It is also used to qualify an IP number to a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or the other way round (National Research Council (I.S). Committee on the Fundamentals of Computer Science: Challenges and Opportunities, 2004).

Domain Information Groper (DIG)

A Domain Information Groper seems to be an advanced Domain Name Service administration tool that can be used to query and give information about resources available and for a given host or domain. This is inclusive of the SOA or the Start of Authority record, the MX or Mail exchange records and NS or Name Servers. A starting point may be obtained from DIG and may act to keep your research going at some point (Belohlavek, 2005).

Network Reconnaissance with Sam Spade (i.e. Ping and Traceroute with Sam Spade)

Network reconnaissance using ping and traceroute has been made simpler in Sam Spade. This is because of the graphic interface developed by Sam Spade and the numerous features which can allow one to apply interesting bits of the several tools within Sam Spade in a single research making the process fast and more reliable. This is as opposed to when the tools are applied alone.

Scanning and Enumeration for Windows Command Line

Inter-process communication can be defined as the definition facilitated by the Operating System between several applications. Most ICP’s therefore do organize for division of labor in the system between the applications while others organize for the division of labor between computers in a network. One can therefore decide whether his or her computer or network needs an ICP, but before one decides on whether to use or not depends on the nature of the work that one does using their computers or networks. The several methods with which the inter-process communication takes place include: Semaphores, Shared Memory, and Sockets among others (Glenn, 2011).

Port Scanning with Super Scan for Window

Port scanning is the use of a port scanner application which is designed to probe a host or server for any ports. The scanning is often used by network operators and administrators in verifying any attacks that are being bombarded on to the network. They may also monitor if the network policies are being adhered to by the users.

Active Stack Fingerprinting Using NMap

Finger printing may be defined as any process that may be used in the determination of which operating system is being run on an identified computer. The NMap’s (network mapper) original main aim was to identify and acquire information about a network through the sending of packets to the network and then analyzing the response to get the information they need depending on the response they have received. The NMap activities however proceeded into the fingerprinting services where they can identify the operating system (Mattord, 2009).

References

Belohlavek, P. (2005). Networking: Unicist Approach to Networking Building. New york: Blue Eagle Group.

Books, LLC. (2003). The browser’s ectasy: a meditation on reading. New York: Counterpoint.

Dini, P. L. (2005). Networking. New York: Springer.

F, B. A. (2006). Computer Science. California: Thomson Course Technology.

Forsythe, A. (1990). Computer Science: Basic language. Michigan: J. Wiley.

Glenn, D. D. (2011). A balanced intoduction to Computer Science. New York: Prentice Hall.

Inc Icon Group International. (2008). Browsers: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases. Sidney: Inc Icon Group International, Incorporated.

Jan G, &. M. (2003). Great jobs for computer science majors. New York : MCGraw-Hill.

L, M. V. (2001). The browser’s dictionary of foreign words and phrases. Chicago: JOhn Wiley and Sons.

Mark Crovella, L. M. (2010). Networking 2010. New York: Springer.

Mattord, M. E. (2009). Principles of Information Security. Boston: Thompson Course Technology.

National Research Council (I.S). Committee on the Fundamentals of Computer Science: Challenges and Opportunities. (2004). Computer Science: reflections on the field, reflections from the field. New York: National Academies Press.

Nell, D. &. (2009). Computer science illuminated. Chicago: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Odom, W. (2004). Computer networking first-step. Washington DC: Cisco Press.

Reed, D. (2008). Computer Science: An Overview. New York: Prentice Hall.

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