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Participation in preceptorship programs is important for experienced nurses in order to develop their professional and leadership skills. While focusing on the development of the preceptor orientation program in the context of organizing a preceptorship preparation class for experienced nurses, it is important to determine tendencies in this area and examine the literature related to the topic. In this literature review, it is necessary to discuss the recent evidence-based literature on the problem of organizing preceptor orientation programs and classes, focus on the application of this literature to the current project, and analyze studies in terms of their usefulness for completing this project.
Current Evidence-Based Literature
Researchers actively discuss the aspects and effectiveness of preceptorship orientation programs in their studies. Thus, Duteau (2012) have described the history of preceptorship programs in Canada concentrating on the role of the efficient course in improving the cooperation between preceptors and preceptees. In their research, Watson, Raffin-Bouchal, Melnick, and Whyte (2012) have also described the development and implementation of the nursing peer preceptorship program in the context of Canadian healthcare facilities. The studies of 2013 and 2014 demonstrate the interest of researchers in specific areas that need to be examined by preceptors during the orientation course. In their work, Kalischuk, Vandenberg, and Awosoga (2013) have concentrated on nurses’ general expectations regarding their roles as preceptors. Still, as it is described by Borch, Athlin, Hov, and Sörensen (2013), more attention should be paid to group supervision during the process of training preceptors.
The idea of developing trusting relationships between participants of programs is also developed by Carlson (2013), who has proposed organizing preceptorship programs with the focus on principles of symbolic interactionism. As it is noted by Hilli, Salmu, and Jonsen (2014), preceptors need to be educated regarding the development of caring relationships to contribute to cooperation between preceptors and preceptees. In their turn, Shinners, Mallory, and Franqueiro (2013) accentuate the necessity of developing preceptors’ skills with the focus on their roles as registered nurses and educators.
Price (2014) supports the idea that, participating in the program, preceptors need to develop their skills in several areas: responsibilities, the work with patients, clinical reasoning, and socialization. Similar conclusions are made by Mann-Salinas et al. (2014), who have conducted the systematic literature review related to the problem of developing preceptorship programs. In their recent study, Bontrager, Hart, and Mareno (2016) have also concluded that preceptors need to develop their skills while participating in programs and courses in order to improve not only their performance but also preceptees’ job satisfaction.
Application of Evidence-Based Literature
All the discussed studies are related to the problem of developing preceptorship orientation programs directly or indirectly; therefore, it is necessary to state how this literature can be applied to the current project. In her study, Duteau (2012) provides some recommendations on how to improve approaches to developing preceptorship programs with the focus on accentuating individual learning needs, responsibilities of skilled nurses, as well as sustainability and flexibility in working. The study by Watson et al. (2012) provides clear recommendations regarding the adaptation of preceptorship programs to the work in clinical settings with the focus on redesigning schedules and teamwork. It is also possible to refer to the conclusions made by Borch et al. (2013) regarding the role of group supervision in developing preceptorship programs.
The findings by Kalischuk et al. (2013) can also be applied to the program development while referring to expectations of potential preceptors regarding the effective course. In their article, Shinners et al. (2013) also propose the list of activities that should be included in the program for preceptors: adult learning principles, feedback, critical thinking, and goal setting among others. The appropriate recommendations regarding the development of the preceptorship program are also provided by Price (2014), who focuses on importance of real-time practical decision-making, and by Mann-Salinas et al. (2014) and Bontrager et al. (2016), who propose involving team members and educators in order to develop the effective program. Still, the practical nature of the project does not allow for applying conclusions or recommendations provided in the studies by Carlson (2013) and Hilli et al. (2014) directly, and it is necessary to adapt the proposed solutions to the problem to the context of this project.
Analysis of Literature
It is also necessary to analyze the provided literature in terms of its ability to support the current project. In their article, Watson et al. (2012) develop the idea of integrating preceptorship programs into the clinical setting in order to improve practical skills of both preceptors and preceptees. The ideas of Borch et al. (2013) regarding preceptors’ visions of effective courses and group supervision are also important to be discussed in the context of the project. The practical recommendations regarding the curriculum for the preceptorship program are also included in the article by Shinners et al. (2013). In addition to practical recommendations provided by Shinners et al. (2013) and Price (2014) among other authors, it is also important to concentrate on the role of the study by Mann-Salinas et al. (2014) in order to support the project and accentuate the necessity of the proper selection of nurses for the role of preceptors. In their turn, Bontrager et al. (2016) support the project while discussing what aspects can improve the work environment for preceptors and preceptees.
Still, according to Duteau (2012), although preceptorship programs are important to be developed for healthcare organizations, it is necessary to guarantee the collaboration between educational institutions and healthcare facilities as appropriate learning environments can be created only with reference to the support of educators. From this point, the author does not support the idea of creating the independent preceptorship orientation class and accentuates the necessity of creating relationships with educational institutions.
Moreover, Carlson (2013) also notes that the effective preceptor preparation is based on the cooperation between educational organizations and healthcare facilities. Therefore, these researchers’ ideas should be taken into account while planning the course. Furthermore, although Carlson’s (2013) discussion of symbolic interactionism in precepting can be viewed as related to the problem only indirectly, the researcher’s conclusions regarding the inclusion of training on communication and critical thinking are important to be included in the program. While referring to the works by Kalischuk et al. (2013) and Hilli et al. (2014), it is important to note that in spite of the fact that the authors refer to the topic of preceptorship in their articles, they do not support this project’s ideas directly, and they cannot be used extensively.
The review of the recent literature demonstrates that there are many studies that are helpful to develop the effective preceptorship orientation program based on the principles of the workplace training. However, the authors’ recommendations are different, and there are no clear conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this or that approach. From this point, the current project can contribute to the debates regarding the features of the effective preceptor program that can be effectively implemented in healthcare organizations.
Bontrager, S., Hart, P. L., & Mareno, N. (2016). The role of preceptorship and group cohesion on newly licensed registered nurses’ satisfaction and intent to stay. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 47(3), 132-139. Web.
Borch, E., Athlin, E., Hov, R., & Sörensen, D. G. (2013). Group supervision to strengthen nurses in their preceptor role in the bachelor nursing education: Perceptions before and after participation. Nurse Education in Practice, 13(2), 101-105. Web.
Carlson, E. (2013). Precepting and symbolic interactionism: A theoretical look at preceptorship during clinical practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(2), 457-464. Web.
Duteau, J. (2012). Making a difference: The value of preceptorship programs in nursing education. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 43(1), 37-43. Web.
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Hilli, Y., Salmu, M., & Jonsen, E. (2014). Perspectives on good preceptorship: A matter of ethics. Nursing Ethics, 21(5), 565-575. Web.
Kalischuk, R. G., Vandenberg, H., & Awosoga, O. (2013). Nursing preceptors speak out: An empirical study. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(1), 30-38. Web.
Mann-Salinas, E., Hayes, E., Robbins, J., Sabido, J., Feider, L., Allen, D., & Yoder, L. (2014). A systematic review of the literature to support an evidence-based precepting program. Burns, 40(3), 374-387. Web.
Price, B. (2014). Preceptorship of nurses in the community. Primary Health Care, 24(4), 36-41. Web.
Shinners, J., Mallory, C., & Franqueiro, T. (2013). Preceptorship today: Moving toward excellence. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 44(11), 482-483. Web.
Watson, L. C., Raffin-Bouchal, S., Melnick, A., & Whyte, D. (2012). Designing and implementing an ambulatory oncology nursing peer preceptorship program: Using grounded theory research to guide program development. Nursing Research and Practice, 2012(1), 1-15. Web.