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Gingivitis is a type of gum inflammation typically caused by plaque, which can result in periodontal disease. While Janus et al. (2017) found that chronic gingivitis is the most common oral infection, Zekonis et al. (2014) report that it causes an increase in white blood cells (WBC). As a result, this inflammation causes a strain on an individuals’ immune system, requiring professional treatment. The purpose of this review is to examine articles on gingivitis and its impact on the subsequent development of periodontal disease, which is the critical issue with ongoing gingivitis. The relevance to dental hygiene is the effect of prevention and potential danger for the alveolar bone. This paper aims to summarise three articles where the authors discuss the issue of ongoing gingivitis with periodontal disease, one of the articles is a research study.
Summary, Discussion, and Evaluation
Both gingivitis and periodontal disease are typically caused by the microbial plague. The article by Janus et al. (2016) suggests that plaque reduction is not easily achieved, and several strategies can be used for prevention, for example, erythritol. Gingivitis affects the gums, causing inflammation that can further result in periodontal disease if untreated. Janus et al. (2016) even note that patients risk losing their alveolar bone if they do not address this condition. The researchers tested biofilm growth with and without erythritol. The conclusions by Janus et al. (2017) suggest that the use of erythritol suppresses the ability of the biofilm to mature. As a result, it is possible that erythritol can be used for promoting oral hygiene, although more research is necessary since this study did not include any human participants.
Ongoing gingivitis and periodontitis are successfully treated with several options available to the dentists. One example of a research study is an experiment by Igic et al. (2011) who examined the prevalence of ongoing gingivitis among adults, the number of periodontal disease cases, and two types of treatment. The type of study completed, variables tested were the effect of basic therapy and primary therapy in combination with low-level laser therapy, which was evaluated using “plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI)” (Igic et al., 2011, p. 1911). The population in this study are adults, and the results show that both methods are useful in combating ongoing gingivitis and periodontal disease, however, laser therapy is a beneficial adjuvant.
The authors of recent literature on ongoing gingivitis and periodontitis are most interested in the effect that this inflammation has on the body. Zekonis et al. (2014) studied the WBC in connection to gingivitis and periodontitis. The patients with this condition had a systemic increase in the WBC count. Zekonis et al. (2014) state that these inflammations caused by bacteria are dangerous because they strain the patient’s immune system. As a result, this study helps understand that the danger of gingivitis is not only in the risk of developing periodontal disease. It is also necessary to consider the effect that the condition has on the immune system and its ability to fight diseases.
Overall, this paper examined the dental issue of ongoing gingivitis and its impact on the subsequent development of periodontal disease. Based on the research findings, one can conclude that both standard therapy and the therapy using laser treatment are effective for gingivitis, with the latter having some benefits for the patient. One research suggests that erythritol can be used as a prevention measure for gingivitis and its complications.
Igic, M., Kesic, L., Lekovic, V., Apostolovic, M., Mihailovic, D., Kostadinovic, L., & Milasin, J. (2012). Chronic gingivitis: The prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 31(8), 1911-1915. Web.
Janus, M., Volgenant, C., Brandt, B., Buijs, M., Keijser, B.,… Crielaard, W.. (2017). Effect of erythritol on microbial ecology of in vitro gingivitis biofilms. Journal of Oral Microbiology, 9(1), 1-8. Web.
Zekonis, G., Barzdziukaite, I., Zekonis, J., Sadzeviciene, R., Simonyte, S., & Zilinskas, J. (2014). Local and systemic immune responses in gingivitis and periodontitis. Open Medicine, 9(5), 694-703. Web.