1. The main difference between the ideas of open-loop controlled movements and closed-loop controlled movements is in the consideration of the further steps.
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According to the theory of the open-loop controlled movements, the first movement is done consciously while all other ones are completed automatically, as the reaction to the first movement.
These movements are believed to be effortless. In contrast, the closed-loop controlled movements are done on the basis of the memory and each subsequent movement is completed consciously.
2. The principal differences between open-loop controlled movements and closed-loop controlled movements presuppose absolutely different techniques in teaching athletes these movements. To make sure that the open-loop controlled movements are taught the internal and external feedback skills should be learnt (for example, to feel the movements or to look at the environment).
The teaching of the closed-loop controlled movements should be directed at the achieving of the advance planning skill, such as desired outcome (Wrisberg, 2007).
3. The reaction time on the open-loop controlled movements is faster as people do not have to think about the further reaction. Dealing with closed-loop controlled movements, people are to recollect in their minds the sequence of movements and only then to react. Thus, the time of the reaction increases.
4. a) Each of the physical processes people complete is supported with the cognitive ones. Explaining the sequences of cognitive and physical processes a hitter goes through when he/she starts to swing a pitch and then stops the swing before the bat crosses the plate one should understand that the success of the process is guaranteed only in case the processes are completed simultaneously.
The situation under consideration should also involve the self-modeling, the cognitive process which goes out of the previous knowledge and experience, however, the basketball player does not notice this self-modeling process is aimed at analyzing the “correct or best parts of his or her own past performance, and using that as a model for future performance” (Feltz & Lirgg, 2001, p. 3).
Moreover, the self-modeling as the part of the process is not to be confused with the expectations as they are not involved in the situation we are dwelling upon.
Therefore, applying to the microanalytic approach which helps us “analyze the degree of congruence between self efficacy and performance at the level of individual tasks” (Feltz & Lirgg, 2001, p. 3), the sequences of cognitive and physical processes a hitter goes through when he/she starts to swing a pitch and then stops the swing before the bat crosses the plate is going to be explained.
Here is the discussion of the muscles and joints which are to be involved in the situation. The abdominal muscle helps pitcher to put his body in the correct position playing the role of the one which is helpful in throwing a ball. The rotator cuff muscle including shoulder muscle help to wipe and the extraocular muscle is responsible for the very throw.
b) Remembering that the reaction time is.15 seconds, it is possible to predict that about.3 seconds a person needs to see the goal. Next, it is important to remember that about.14 seconds a pitcher needs to move the bat from the ready position to the contact. Therefore,.32 seconds a person needs to take the batter to see the goal and to initiate the swing until bat stops
Feltz, C. & Lirgg, P. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs of athletes, teams, and coaches. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology, 2nd ed. (pp. 340-361). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Wrisberg, C. A. (2007). Sport Skill Instruction for Coaches. New York: Human Kinetics.