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An important period of OS development dates back to 1965-1975. At this time, in the technical base of computers, there was a transition from individual semiconductor elements such as transistors to integrated circuits, which paved the way for the appearance of the next generation of computers. These enhancements greatly improved the efficiency of the computing system. Multiprogramming was implemented in two versions – in batch processing systems and time-sharing.
Multiprogram batch processing systems, like their single-program predecessors, had as their goal the maximum load on computer hardware, but they solved this problem more efficiently. In multi-program batch mode, the processor did not stand idle while one program performing an I / O operation but switched to another program ready for execution. As a result, a balanced loading of all computer devices was achieved, and therefore, the number of tasks solved per unit time increased.
The emergence of the scientific discipline of program design, the creation of compatible systems, the creation of emulators, the beginning of OS specialization. Development of modular, procedural software. The compatibility of OS and software (software) was first organized by IBM (Computer History, 2019). There were many firms, their machines and team systems were different. It was challenging to switch to a computer in another class. IBM has created a line of computers compatible from bottom to top: IBM System 360 and an OS that is compatible with all machines of this line (OS / 360). To facilitate the transition from other computers to this line, IBM has created emulators of other systems on its system.
Similarly, Win95 was in due time, and it required writing drivers for this system. DEC-PDP and UNIX OS will be created later. The complexity of designing debugging and OS support has given rise to program design technology – modularity, compatibility, and OS mobility. It is important to note that the development of both Microsoft Windows and macOS demonstrates a gradual improvement in the overall performance. Mac OS X is a unique operating system that successfully combines paradigms, ideologies, and technologies that, in the past, were usually incompatible with each other. It is the fruit of the many trial and errors of Apple and NeXT, as well as their community of users and developers. Perhaps Mac OS X is one of the best examples of how a powerful operating system can be the result of direct or indirect efforts of corporations, scientific and research communities, movements for open source code and free software, and even ordinary people.
Whereas, one of the most common operating systems until the mid-90s was the disk operating system of Microsoft MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System). In 1981, IBM placed a request for an operating system to be used in the new IBM PC family of computers (Computer History, 2019). Microsoft bought the rights to the 86-DOS operating system from Seattle Computer Products and began work on its modification to the requirements of IBM. However, the first UNIX system was developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs. Since then, a large number of different UNIX systems have been created (Computer History, 2019). In 1969, Ken Thompson, trying to implement the ideas that were the foundation of MULTICS, but on the more modest hardware DEC PDP-7, wrote the first version of the new operating system, and Brian Kernighan came up with the name for it – UNICS. Later the name was reduced to UNIX.
In conclusion, it is clear that each type of OS has undergone a steady and gradual developmental history. However, it seems that MS-DOS was the least successful, whereas Windows systems were highly stable in terms of pacing. macOS is different due to the fact that its development was significantly boosted by the company’s market rearrangement of preferential consumption. In addition, UNIX demonstrates a simple and specialized type of improvement, which is focused on its target market.
Computer History. (2019). Web.