List the 5 Components of MIS and briefly describe how each relates to the study and optimization of systems in companies
A standard MIS is composed of these five components:
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- Hardware: This constitutes all the computers, machines, nets, and wires involved in the creation of a unified MIS. Optimizing hardware usually involves improving the capabilities of one or several components of the net to improve its overall output.
- Software: This component stands for programs that are used to operate the MIS, manage data, search and cipher through logs, and other related activities. Optimization of software typically involves adding features and functionality required to perform specific tasks while at the same time getting rid of unnecessary ones.
- Data: This component stands for the information introduced into the system. Optimization of data input usually involves making data more informative while at the same time excluding bits of information not necessary to perform a certain task.
- Procedures: Documentation and development. Procedural optimization typically touches information storage and the process of information being introduced into the database.
- People: The end users of the MIS. This component may describe individual users, groups of users, or entire organizations. Optimizing this component involves training the personnel in using and analyzing data.
To the best of your knowledge, define TPS and describe some examples where Batch Processing is used and other cases where Real-Time Processing is implemented in today’s world. Besides, how has the implementation of TPS allowed companies and banks to save money?
TPS stands for Transaction Processing Systems. These are systems used for managing, collecting, storing, and retrieving information. There are two most common types of TPS. These are:
- Real-Time Processing. This type of TPS suggests that the information about transactions and any other data is processed and modified immediately. This model is widely used in e-commerce, booking flights, automatic payments, ATMs, and other areas. It is the preferable choice of TPS where the speed of managing data is paramount.
- Batch Processing. This type of TPS involves collecting data over a certain period and sending it in batches. This type of payment is often used when the number of micro-transactions is too big to pay individually for every single one. Instead, batch processing involves calculating the expenses and putting out a bill at the end of a designated interval.
Using TPS allows companies and banks to save money in numerous ways. The ATMs allow foregoing the cashier, as they are more economically efficient than having a person stand in a booth at the same location for an entire day. TPS systems allow for streamlining and simplifying MIS and saving money from it.
MIS is defined as systems that are designed with a ‘socio-technical’ point of view in mind. What does this term refer to? Furthermore, by outlining the key areas addressed in the socio-technical model, describe how each one relates to the subject of MIS
The socio-technical model is a kind of organizational development that acknowledges and focuses on the interactions between customers, employees, and technology. MIS is built within the parameters of the socio-technical model in the sense that all MIS are the intermediaries between humans and various technological processes. The model suggests four key areas that the MIS needs to address:
- Autonomy: The system must allow the user to perform the actions autonomously, without having to rely on another intermediary outside of the MIS.
- Adaptability: The MIS must be able to adapt to a plethora of constant and ever-changing demands from the users, employees, and customers. It must allow customization to represent the needs of the users more accurately.
- Whole tasks: The MIS must allow completing the tasks entirely by using the same system and not having to rely on any systems outside of it.
- Meaningfulness of tasks: The MIS must not obligate its users to perform tasks unnecessary for the performance of the required operations.
Briefly explain the difference between data and information and describe how the stages of the MIS process work in terms of INPUT-PROCESSING-OUTPUT- FEEDBACK
Data stands for unprocessed information – a set of words and numbers that did not undergo any analysis or structuration. Information is processed data, organized for easier use and assessment.
Most MIS function in terms of the Input-Processing-Output-Feedback loop:
- Input: The data is introduced into the system either automatically or from user input from the external environment.
- Processing: The data is converted into information via software processing or some other means, to enable the users to make decisions based on said information.
- Output: The MIS transfers the information to managers, customers, and other decision-makers to be used in their activities.
- Feedback: Input received from various members of the process to improve the functioning of the MIS at its various stages.
What is referred to by DSS and ESS? What level of management is each system intended for? Furthermore, what are some cases where DSS has proven to improve a company’s performance, specifically in the area of retail?
DSS stands for Decision Support System. This system offers information required to make decisions, where the outcome of the decision itself is not always apparent. The MIS provides the manager with the information, such as competitor prices, stock prices, schedule optimization patterns, etc. Said information might come from the MIS itself or the outside sources. The DDS is typically used by middle managers.
ESS, on the other hand, is the Executive Support System. Unlike the DDS, this system provides information that allows making long-term strategic decisions that have the potential to affect the entire company and not just one single operation. Typically, this system is used by senior managers, CEOs, and company directors.
One particular example of DSS use in stores allows predicting customer response to increased or decreased prices on various products, based on analysis of historical data. This allows the managers to plan their pricing strategies when approaching high and low seasons.
What does EAI refer to and what are some key objectives it hopes to achieve? Also, what are the two primary types of EAI networks?
EAI stands for Enterprise Application Integration, and it serves for integrating the components of numerous enterprises into one interconnected web. This ensures that the manager receives a full report of the situation within a single document and from a single outlet, rather than several reports received individually from independent systems. There are two types of EAI networks:
- Mesh Networks: In this system, every enterprise is connected. This allows for data and information to be interchanged between every member of the system.
- Hub Networks: While achieving the same goals as mesh networks, all enterprises are connected to a hub, from which the information is processed and distributed to the members of the network, on-demand.
Outline the 4 methods of MIS implementation and describe how each way carries its risks and costs
There are four methods of MIS implementation:
- Direct approach – this approach involves the installation of a new MIS and complete removal of the old one. While this method of implementation is the quickest, it also means that the users will have a hard time adjusting and relearning the system.
- Parallel approach – the new MIS is implemented while the old one stays in place. This allows for the harmonious integration of the new MIS. However, the process may take time.
- Modular approach – the new MIS is implemented piece-meal, while other enterprises continue using the old system. While it allows for any potential incidents to be localized, this method causes plenty of confusion when integrating both systems.
- Phase-in approach – very similar to the modular approach, but allows for better integration between old and new systems. This approach allows for a more seamless transition but is slow and costly.
Outline and describe the 4 main types of Enterprise Applications Systems
Four main types of EAS:
- ERP. Stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. It allows collecting information about the day-to-day operations of the business and gives a clear and concise view of the processes.
- SCM. Stands for Supply Chain Management systems. Allows following trade routes, deliveries, orders, production, inventory levels, and the like. Is predominantly used in production and warehousing.
- CRM. Stands for Customer Relationship Management Systems. This system is used in marketing and customer management. It displays all the relevant information about customers, their attendance rates, preferences, distribution, support, service improvement, and the like.
- KMS. Stands for Knowledge Management Systems. Is primarily used for integrating, sharing, and distributing information acquired through various external sources.
Describe some examples of malware and spyware. How are they different. Besides, what are some other forms of ‘ware’ in today’s IT systems industries?
Malware stands for “Malicious Software,” which is a term used to describe programs that may cause potential harm to the computer’s software or hardware. An example of Malware is the famous Chernobyl virus that damages computer hardware by overloading it. Spyware, on the other hand, wants to steal important information about the user’s passwords, as well as personal data. An example of Spyware is CoolWebSearch – a group of programs that exploit the weaknesses of the Internet Explorer Browser. Other forms of “ware” present in the modern IT industry is Adware, Ransomware, and Scareware.
How might MIS Specialists be able to save a company or firm in terms of infrastructure costs?
MIS specialists could save the company some infrastructure costs through analyzing its current MIS, and the internal processes within the enterprise, and conduct necessary optimizations. Introducing new technologies, streamlining the processes, making the MIS less cumbersome and prone to redundancy, and cutting down on unnecessary employees by replacing them with TPS, which customers and employees could operate. For example, the introduction of ATMs in banks helped significantly reduce the number of cashiers required to perform the operations a customer could do on their own using an ATM.