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Today business organizations started to pay a lot of attention to their inner policies. The leaders of big companies became aware that a good inner environment and a balanced atmosphere are serious factors that can influence the whole company’s performance in the business arena. This is why these days business organizations started to employ psychologists and conflict managers. Such measures as organizational testing and assessment, conflict resolution, and mediation are directed at the evaluation of the employees, their interactions, and the relationship between the psychological atmosphere at the workplace and the company’s success and level of income (Cohen, Swerdlik & Sturman 2013).
An organizational assessment of good quality can improve the health and performance of the employees, encourage and reinforce various ways of development, help to identify challenges, and cope with them in time.
To keep the situation at the workplace under control the managers need to be aware of the abilities and professional skills of their employees. The potential of the workers needs to be evaluated and estimated so that the company has the knowledge and is aware of its weak spots and strengths. Performance appraisal is what helps the managers to accomplish the most careful and precise evaluation. The results of the appraisal of the employees should be documented as it serves as the basis for further changes in the organization. Performance appraisal influences the careers of the employees directly.
According to the results of this appraisal, a worker can be demoted, promoted, retained, or dismissed. The employees should also be provided with feedback according to the results of their appraisal, the awareness of their strengths and weaknesses will help them improve their performance.
Behavioral Observation Scales
In some cases the performance of workers is impossible to measure only using the data about their productivity; this is when observational scales have to be applied. This method is designed to observe and document the employees’ behavior at the workplace; the evaluation is done using comparison. The scales are directed at pointing out certain behavioral patterns of the employees and the frequency of their occurrence.
The results of different workers will be compared to one another. This is done to allow the managers to find out if the employees match the demands of the company if they engage in inappropriate types of behavior and if certain disciplinary measures are needed. Behavioral observation scales are normally compiled as questionnaires, which will be given out to the employees and filled in. Sometimes the managers are to fill in the scales according to the results of their observations.
The Big Five Theory
The Big Five theory of personality explores the main dimensions of human behavior that determine the type of personality. These Big Five categories of traits are extraversion or introversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (Ewen 2003). These five categories of personality features are very broad and include a wide range of traits from one extreme edge to another (Wiggins 2006).
For example, the category of extraversion and introversion contains all kinds of behaviors between the two extreme edges. Personality is a complicated matter; it varies from one individual to another. The analysis based on the Big Five theory should always take into consideration the fact that the situational factor plays a big role in the way a person reacts to various circumstances. At the same time, most people’s reactions will be based on the traits specific to their personalities.
Meta-analysis is the type of research that is specialized in combining and analyzing the results of several fields and disciplines directed at the same subject. Meta-analysis deals with the comparative evaluation and data collection (Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins & Rothstein 2011). This type of analysis is widely used in many various fields such as psychology, medicine, science, history, and physics. The purpose of a meta-analysis is to see the issues from many different points of view and angles to create a better understanding of the existing problems, predict possible outcomes and evaluate the further development of the subject. Meta-analysis is a very deep kind of research that is concentrated on the methods of research used in other fields; it explores the possibilities of using new resources to receive more data.
Carroll’s Three Stratum Theory
The three stratum theory was first formed by John Carroll in 1993. The theory is called this way because it operates using analyzing three levels of human cognitive ability. The theory works are focused on collecting analytical data about the abilities a person has on each level and then groups these abilities together to receive a bigger picture. This theory is based on the belief that certain types of abilities are responsible for certain consequences and this is how analysis is done. Groups of abilities on one level are responsible for the traits of the next level, all the elements are interrelated. Using grouping various factors a psychologist can form a general idea about the individual’s level and type of cognitive abilities.
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T. & Rothstein, H. R. (2011). Introduction to Meta-Analysis. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Cohen R. J., Swerdlik, M. E., & Sturman, E. D. (2013). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Test and Measurement (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Companies.
Ewen, R. B. (2003). An Introduction of Theories of Personality (6th ed.). Hove, United Kingdom: Psychology Press.
Wiggins, J. S. (2006). The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives. New York, NY: Guilford Press.