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Organizational training design Report


Introduction

Organization training design is an activity that involves six key steps, namely, organization analysis, laying out training program objectives, creating a detailed lesson plan, creating a before, during and after matrix, evaluation rating and doing cost benefit calculations.

The outcome of the design process is a training program whose integration into an organization facilitates the realization of the organization’s mission as it is outlined in its mission statement. According to WebFinance, a formal definition of an organization is a social unit made up of people who systematically work together with unity of purpose to achieve collective goals that reflect the mission of the organization (2010, 3).

For the synthesis project, the process of organization training design is applied to Netsoft, a private sector company. Netsoft is a global telecommunications company that has it’s headquarter in the United States.

It has one of its branches in Kenya, Netsoft Kenya, where a submarine fiber optic communications cable is to be installed that will link Africa with the rest of the world. The fiber optic cable is to bring a world of opportunities not only to the country but to the continent as well. Netsoft wants to seize this opportunity and increase its dominance in Africa’s internet market as a strategic move towards increasing its earnings.

However, its five-telecommunication engineers in Kenya are not conversant with fiber optic technology that is already in use in the rest of the world (Kenya is a third-world country).

The engineers are, however, individuals with high academic qualifications and with vast experience in telecommunication and its related fields. Thus, considering these facts the top management of the company has commissioned a one-day training program to teach the Kenyan engineers on fiber optic technology.

Discussion

Organization analysis

According to Miller and Osinski, organization analysis is one among the three levels of the needs assessment phase of designing an organization’s training and development program (2002, 2).

The other two levels as given by the authors are task analysis and individual analysis whereas the other phases of designing an organization’s training and development program are instructional objectives (2nd phase), design (3rd phase), implementation (4th phase) and evaluation (5th phase) (Miller and Osinski, 2002, 1-2).

The purpose of the needs assessment phase is to aid a training manager set the objectives of the organization’s training program. Therefore, by the end of the needs assessment phase the training manager has to have established if the training program is necessary and if it is, what is it on and who are the participants.

It is the idea that a properly conducted needs assessment phase reveals no conflicts between the interests of stakeholders and the objectives of the organization’s training program.

The objective as to why organizational analysis is undertaken is to improve the efficiency, performance and output of an organization (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2011, 1).

To achieve this objective the analysis procedure assesses the organization’s systems, capacity and performance in an aim to create an understanding of the behavioral relationships, structures and technology in place and in use in an organization (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2011, 1).

In organizational training design, the theory and models underlying organizational analysis are customized so that the outcome of the procedure is concepts that form a strong basis on which to successfully implement an organizational training program.

At the end of an organizational analysis procedure that is part of an organization training design, it is fundamental that 10 things be known.

The first is how the content of the training program affects the relationship between the organization’s employees and its clients. The second is the degree to which the organization’s suppliers, partners and clients need to be informed about the contents of the training program. The third thing is how well the training programs augment with the strategic needs of the organization.

The fourth thing is whether to devote the organization’s resources to the training program. The fifth thing is what input is necessary from the organization’s mangers and peers in order for the training program to succeed.

The sixth thing that needs to be known is the features of the organization’s internal environment that can hamper the success of the training program. The seventh thing that needs to be known is whether experts can be found who can aid in the formulation of the training program and who enlighten on the correlation between it and the business needs of the organization.

The eighth thing that has to be known at the end of the organization analysis procedure that is part of an organization training design is the perception that employees have towards the training program. The perception should be described either as a waste of time, an opportunity, a reward, a punishment or even a combination of these.

The ninth thing that has to be known is the section of people in the organization who are interested in the success of the training program. The tenth thing that needs to be known is whose support is critical to the success of the training program.

In addition to these 10 things, Miller and Osinski point out that an organization analysis procedure should also identify global markets that are growing and economy state and its impacts on organization’s operating costs and (2002, 3).

How training program aligns with Netsoft’s strategic needs

There is a need for the company to seize the opportunity presented by the submarine fiber optic cable as this is essential in aiding the company realize its mission which is to become a global leader in telecommunications.

The training program equips Netsoft’s Kenyan engineers with the knowledge and skills for designing, implementing and administering fiber optic networks. This paves the way for the company to assert its dominance on Africa’s internet market. Thus in this way the training program aligns with Netsoft’s strategic needs.

Features of work environment that might interfere with the training

A feature of the work environment that may interfere with Netsoft’s training program is lack of up-to-date training facilities. Considering that the training is to take place in third-world country getting state-of-the-art facilities to conduct the training can be a challenge.

Another feature of the work environment that may interfere with the training is poor organizational culture at the branch. It is possible that the organizational culture in place at the company’s Kenyan branch does not encourage or motivate its employees to learn new things and thus this might be a considerable hindrance.

How employees will perceive training program

The engineers and the other employees in Netsoft’s Kenyan branch should perceive the training program as an opportunity. If the training program is a success it is the green light for the company to make strategic moves that will enable it assert its dominance in the African Internet market. This means more earnings for the company, which in turns means likely salary increases for the engineers and other employees in Netsoft Kenya.

Persons or groups interested in the success of the project

The top management of Netsoft is interested in the success of the training program. This is because from it they can take hold of the opportunities presented by the submarine cable and make huge profits for the company at minimal costs.

Training objectives

The second key activity in organizational training design is setting the objectives of the training program, which can be thought of as sub-goals (SIL International, 1999, 1). The objectives of the training program are a byproduct of the needs assessment phase. To create a learning atmosphere it is very helpful that the participants of an organization’s training program understand the program’s objectives.

The objectives of an organization’s training program capture for each individual training activity in the program its purpose and expected outcome. Depending on a number of factors that include the structure of the organization’s training program objectives can be set for the various training sessions and the overall program.

It is imperative that trainees not only understand but as well accept and commit to realizing the training objectives set for a given organization’s training program especially when the objectives double up too as the organization’s goals.

A training needs analysis is undertaken so that an organization’s employees can appreciate the need for a training program as well as why they need to learn. Thus, this is why it is a sound recommendation that the training objectives be a derivative of a training needs analysis.

In addition to streamlining the learning process, training objectives facilitate the identification of certain outcome types that when measured evaluate the effectiveness of an organization’s training program.

The first of the three components of a training objective is a statement, which clearly describes to an employee what he or she is expected to do. The second of the three components of a training objective is a statement, which describes to the trainees the acceptable performance quality or level.

The third of the three components of a training objective is a statement that describes to an employee for a given outcome the conditions under which he or she has to perform in to achieve it. It is important that a training objective always describe performances that are observable and measurable.

Donald Kirkpatrick’s Four Level Evaluation Model is a useful procedure for judging an organization’s training program (Big Dog & Little Dog’s performance Juxtaposition, 2010, 1).

The constituents of the model are four levels, namely, reaction, learning, behavior and results. In the reaction, level of the evaluation procedure a measurement is done of how the participants of an organization’s training program react to the process of learning, that is, their perception towards the program. The measurement is done with the aid of attitude questionnaires that are filled by the participants.

In the reaction level of the evaluation procedure measurement of three aspects is done. The first is the extent to which participants change their attitude resulting from the organization’s training program.

The second is the extent to which participants have improved their knowledge resulting from the organization’s training program. The third is the extent to which participants have increased their knowledge because of the organization’s training program. In the performance level of the evaluation procedure testing is done to determine the participant’s capabilities to utilize the skills they have acquired on the job place.

In some cases, performance evaluation is done through observation only. In the results, level of the evaluation procedure the effectiveness of the organization’s training program is measured.

Objectives of Netsoft’s training program

Using Kirkpatrick’s four level evaluation framework two reaction level objectives for Netsoft’s training program are:

  1. Create an understanding of what fiber optic technology is
  2. Enable participants appreciate its importance in realizing company’s strategic needs and mission

The three behaviors are:

  1. Understanding
  2. Appreciation
  3. Pro-activeness

The three criteria are:

  1. Verbal quiz
  2. Paper quiz
  3. Observation

The three conditions are:

  1. Teaching facilities are sufficient
  2. Participants agree that they have understood course material
  3. Quiz is the same for everyone

Using Kirkpatrick’s four level evaluation framework two learning objectives for Nestsoft’s training program are:

  1. Participants are able to explain the underlying concepts of fiber optic technology
  2. Participants can outline the strengths and weaknesses of the technology

The three behaviors are:

  1. Competency
  2. Understanding
  3. Mastering

The three criterions are:

  1. Verbal quiz
  2. Paper quiz
  3. Observation

The three conditions are:

  1. Teaching facilities are sufficient
  2. Participants agree that they have understood course material
  3. Quizzes are the same for everyone

Using Kirkpatrick’s four level evaluation framework two performance objectives for Netsoft’s training program are:

  1. Participants are able to successfully design, implement and administer fiber optic networks
  2. Participants are able to troubleshoot faulty fiber optic networks

The three behaviors are:

  1. Competency
  2. Understanding
  3. Mastering

The three criterions are:

  1. Practical test
  2. Verbal quiz
  3. Observation

The three conditions are

  1. Teaching facilities are sufficient
  2. Participants agree that they have understood course material
  3. Quiz and test is the same for everyone

Using Kirkpatrick’s four level evaluation framework two results objectives for Netsoft’s training program are:

  1. Training program yields an acceptable ROI
  2. Training program yields an acceptable CBR

Detailed Lesson Plan

A detailed lesson plan contains a variety of components. These include course title, lesson title, lesson length, learning objectives, target audience, room arrangement, materials and equipment needed, evaluation and assignments as well as comments from the trainer (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2011, 1). The course title is the subject heading of the field the trainer intends to teach.

The course is derived from wide field of knowledge or specialization. The degree of extend of the content of a subject vary from one course to another. The inclusion of course title is important to the lesson plan because it communicates to the trainee the overall scope of knowledge to be covered by the different lesson sessions in that course.

Lesson title states the scope of content to be covered in a single lesson session. The contents of a lesson title are a subset of course title. Lesson sessions act as building blocks of a course. Depending on the scope and complexity of title it can be divided into several lessons which are convenient to both the trainer and trainee. One of the main importances of having a lesson title is to delineate the content to be covered during the lesson.

This avoids the chances of veering of from the intended content. Lesson length in a lesson plan details the duration which a single lesson will last. The lesson length will be determined by a number of factors: availability of time, complexity and scope of the subject and cost of executing the lesson.

When deciding on the lesson length, there is need to determine when trainers are to avail themselves while the program is on course, the time constraints on the trainees, program breaks for snacks, lunch and dinner as well as opportunities for practice and feedback. Some lessons may last full day while others are part time.

Learning objectives are the thematic areas within a lesson the trainer intends to communicate and be grasped by the trainees. It is important to factor in the lesson plan the genre of the target audience. The target audience determines the level of communication and interaction between the trainer and trainees.

The prerequisites encompass trainee and instructor. Trainee prerequisites refers to possible preparation requirements, necessary skills or the scope of knowledge needed to be trained on prior training sessions or successful completion of tests or certificate or degree programs. Instructor prerequisites points towards what is needed to be done to prepare for the session as well as other educational qualification necessary for the trainer.

Before the lesson execution the room arrangement of the trainees is another important component to consider. For instance, the room could be arranged in fan-shape so that the trainees can clearly see the trainer as well as their peers. Fan-shape is also suitable for role play exercises that entail working and organization into groups of two or three. In the lesson plan the trainer ought to include the materials and equipments required.

These materials and equipments act as aids to training and enhance the ability of the trainer to relay information effectively.

The assortment of materials and equipments in any given set up vary, but, they may include a video cassette recorder (VCR), pens, overhead projector, transparencies, and VCR tapes with titles of the lesson. In the case of evaluation and assignments, role plays could be instituted. Comments imply on the overall appraisal of lesson outcomes and remarks on the way forward.

Detailed lesson plan for Netsoft’s training program

The detailed one-day lesson plan for Netsoft’s training program is shown in appendix A.

Before, during and after matrix

The before, during and after training matrix is a table-like structure that serves two purposes. The first purpose is that it facilitates the diagnosis of problems that are associated with transfer of training. The second purpose is that it serves as an assurance that the transfer of training activity was done to completion.

The constituent elements of the matrix are the training manager’s, trainer’s and the trainee’s responsibilities before, during and after learning has been transferred. Each of these elements is entered into its appropriate cell in the before, during and after training matrix. Figure 1 in appendix B shows an empty before, during and after training matrix.

Before, during and after matrix for Netsoft’s training program

The before, during and after matrix for Netsoft’s training program is shown in appendix C

Evaluation rating

By doing evaluation rating, a rating form is useful in measuring the behavior of individual participants in an organization’s training program. The rating form is usually accompanied with a corresponding rating scale.

The rating form usually has a number of items for which the participants of the organization’s training program get graded for. The measuring process of the evaluation rating activity usually has its designated period in which to measure the behaviors of the participants.

In an example of an evaluation rating procedure it may be required that the sensitivity (which is the behavior) of a manager be measured using data collected for 3 months. Sensitivity in this case may be defined as the manager’s perception of the personal problems, needs and concerns of others.

The rating scale may be 1 to represent always, 2 to represent usually, 3 to represent sometimes, 4 to represent seldom and 5 to represent never.

To measure the behavior (sensitivity) a question can be put forward as to how many times in the three months the manager has elicited the perceptions, feelings and concerns of other individuals? Using the rating scale the answer to this question can be 1 to imply that the manager over the past 3 months always elicited the perceptions, feelings and concerns of other individuals.

Evaluation rating for Netsfoft’s training program

The evaluation rating done here for Netsoft’s training program follows a 60 days assessment of level 3 (performance) objectives. In this rating, the behaviors to be measured are competency, understanding and mastering. Competency is how well vast a participant is with fiber optic technology. Understanding is how well a participant synthesizes the various concepts of fiber optic technology.

Mastering is how well a participant retains the knowledge he or she as acquired on fiber optic technology. These three behaviors are measured on a scale of 1 to 3 such that 1 represents poorly, 2 represents fairly and 3 represents well.

Depending on how a question is answered, a participant can only score one of these ratings. After answering all the questions, the average is taken and the participant’s level of competency, understanding and mastering determined.

For competency the questions to be asked are:

  1. What is fiber optic?
  2. What is fiber optic technology?
  3. Which are the concepts that underlie the technology?

For understanding the questions to be asked are:

  1. Explain the fundamental concepts underlying fiber optic technology
  2. Explain are the advantages of the technology?
  3. Explain are the disadvantages of the technology?
  4. Explain the standards that govern fiber optic technology

For mastering, the questions to be asked are:

  1. Name the advantages of the fiber optic technology
  2. Name the disadvantages of the technology
  3. Name the networking standards that govern the technology

Cost benefit calculation

In the doing cost benefit calculations stage of the organizational training design two important values are determined which are the Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) and the return On Investment (ROI). These two values are calculated from the costs that an organization as incurred to successfully complete the training program and the benefits it has yielded.

The BCR is a ratio that gives the magnitude of correlation between the costs an organization as incurred to the successfully complete the training program and the benefits it has yielded (Investopedia, ULC, 2011, 1). It is given as the quotient of the total benefits and total costs of an organization’s training program.

The ROI, sometimes given as a percentage, is a performance measure that evaluates the efficiency of an organization’s investment, which in this case is the training program (Investopedia, ULC, 2011, 1). The ROI is given as the quotient of the net total benefits realized from an investment and the total costs of the investment. If the ROI is to be given as a percentage, 100 multiply the quotient.

Cost Benefit calculations for Netsoft’s training program

From the data given in part F of the synthesis project, the BCR for Netsoft’s training program is, BCR = Total benefits/Total costs = 329,201 / 164,863 = 1.9968. From the data given in part F of the synthesis project, the ROI for Netsoft’s training program is, ROI = ( Net total benefits/ total costs) 100 = ((329,201 – 164,863) / 164,863) 100 = 99.6816%.

Conclusion

The report’s main conclusion is that organization training is important in helping a company achieve its mission and goals and thus each stage of the organization training design process should be carried out properly. The goals to be attained as a result of an organization’s training program should be in line with the strategic needs of the organization in which the program is implemented.

References

Big Dog & Little Dog’s performance Juxtaposition. (2010). Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model. Web.

Investopedia, ULC. Benefit cost ratio. Web.

Investopedia, ULC. Return on investment-roi. Web.

Miller, J. A. and Osinski, D. M. Training needs assessment. Web.

SIL International. (1999) What is an objective. Web.

WebFinance. (2010). Organization. Web.

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2011) Organizational analysis. Web.

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2011) Lesson plan. Web.

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Akemi. (2020, January 20). Organizational training design [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-training-design-report/

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Akemi. "Organizational training design." IvyPanda, 20 Jan. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-training-design-report/.

1. Akemi. "Organizational training design." IvyPanda (blog), January 20, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-training-design-report/.


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Akemi. "Organizational training design." IvyPanda (blog), January 20, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-training-design-report/.

References

Akemi. 2020. "Organizational training design." IvyPanda (blog), January 20, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-training-design-report/.

References

Akemi. (2020) 'Organizational training design'. IvyPanda, 20 January.

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