Pneumonia is a severe condition that has to be treated immediately to avoid possible complications. Pletz, Rohde, Welte, Kolditz, and Ot (2016) state that it is an “infectious disease with the highest number of deaths worldwide” (p. 300). A nursing professional can help a patient deal with the condition by identifying a nursing diagnosis and providing further interventions. According to Gulanick and Myers (2014), the concept of nursing diagnosis reflects a patient’s response to an identified health issue. This paper aims to examine pneumonia from a nursing perspective and offer four possible interventions for the condition.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Pneumonia From a Nursing Perspective specifically for you
301 certified writers online
Nursing diagnosis in the case of pneumonia would include aspects such as blocked airways and coughing. Additionally, a patient may cough, have a fever, and feel exhausted. Pertinent pathophysiology of pneumonia consists of several primary symptoms, but mainly high temperature, which would indicate inflammation in a patient’s body. Gulanick and Myers (2014) state that primary symptoms are pleuritic chest pain, fever, chills, changes in sputum, cough, and dyspnea. Based on these factors, a primary care provider would diagnose an individual with pneumonia.
It is crucial to carry out tests that would determine the primary causes of the condition. According to Li, An, Fu, and Li (2016), pneumonia is a “lung inflammation caused by different pathogens or other factors” (p. 2145). Risk factors may vary, for instance, an intubated patient may develop the disease. At the same time, another person may acquire community-based pneumonia while having little contact with healthcare establishments. Thus, both patients who have been in a hospital for a while and those who are newly admitted are at risk of contracting the disease. Additionally, Gulanick and Myers (2014) state that other contributing factors include substance use, exposure to other illnesses, immobility, or chronic conditions. Immunization is another aspect to consider in regards to pneumonia.
The etiology of the disease is reflected in microorganisms from the external environment that contaminates one’s body. According to Gulanick and Myers (2014), viruses or bacteria can cause pneumonia. Additionally, sometimes fungi or other factors can cause the condition. Cooper and Haut (2013) state that patients who require lung ventilation are at risk as well because they may be infected easily. Considering the factors mentioned above, several nursing interventions might be applied:
- Therapy aimed at reducing fever symptoms;
- Respiratory physiotherapy for airways;
- Proper diet and fluid intake.
The primary objective of treating pneumonia is to ensure that the patient is prescribed medication and is receiving it. Antibiotics should be suggested within four hours of arriving at the hospital (Cooper & Haut, 2016). Both parenteral and oral medication can be prescribed, depending on the severity of a case. Cooper and Haut (2016) distinguish concurrent viral and bacterial pneumonia. In the case of a viral illness, antibiotics would not be sufficient; thus, antiviral drugs should be prescribed instead. Therapy, together with medication, should be applied to counteract significant fever symptoms that a patient has.
In some cases, patients may require lung ventilation due to complications. Li et al. (2016) suggest respiratory physiotherapy for airways to ensure they are not blocked. Also, oxygen therapy treatment aimed at the prevention of respiratory failure might be another nursing intervention. Additionally, nursing professionals should focus on preventing possible comorbid conditions. In less severe cases, ensuring that proper nutrition and fluid intake is in place can help the patient get better. Measures such as a humidifier can help relieve some symptoms as well.
Overall, pneumonia is a severe condition that affects many people around the world. A nursing professional should focus on the primary symptoms of the disease, such as blocked airways and difficulty of breathing. The interventions would include ensuring proper medication is taken by an individual, fever symptoms reduction, respiratory physiotherapy for airways, and adequate nutrition. Additionally, a nurse may install a humidifier to relieve breathing difficulty for a patient.
Cooper, V. B., & Haut, C. (2013). Preventing ventilator associated pneumonia in children: An evidence based protocol. Critical Care Nurse, 33, 21-29. Web.
Gulanick, M., & Myers, J. L. (2014). Nursing care plans: Diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Li, W., An, X., Fu, M., & Li, C. (2016). Emergency treatment and nursing of children with severe pneumonia complicated by heart failure and respiratory failure: 10 case reports. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 12(4), 2145–2149. Web.
Pletz, M. W., Rohde, G. G., Welte, T., Kolditz, M., & Ot, S. (2016). Advances in the prevention, management, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. F1000 Research, 5, 300. Web.