The Stages of Information Processes and Methods of Accessing Information
The first stage of knowledge processing is sensory memory (Driscoll, 2005). Sensory memory stores information for further processing. At this stage, visual and auditory hold the implications for instructions. They do so by initiating attention. Driscoll asserts that attention is not adequate. She believes that automaticity is also needed for information to be transferred to the next stage.
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Short-term memory is the second stage of knowledge processing. It is the fragment of memory, which is continuously processed while fresh information is being fetched. Three concepts exist through which information is retained at this stage (Driscoll, 2005). The first concept is the addition of stimulus. The concept occurs when a stimulus resembles the existing mental representation. Adaptation of stimulus is realized when impetus does not equal the existing mental representation. The creation of a stimulus is realized when the impetus is very dissimilar from any present mental reconstruction.
The third stage of knowledge processing is long-term memory. The stage represents the last phase of processing information. At this stage, the information is stored forever. There are a number of information processing systems at this stage. As such, if the information is graphic, it is stored as image constructs. If the information is verbal, it is stored in verbal constructs.
Recall, recollection, recognition, and relearning are four ways through which information can be retrieved from long-term memory (Driscoll, 2005). Recall comprises the ability to regain the information without being prompted, while recollection comprises the ability to reconstruct the memory. Recognition comprises retrieval of information after going through it again while relearning involves familiarization of information that has been earlier taught.
Meaningful Learning and Schema Theory
There are conditions that should exist for meaningful learning. The conditions stipulate that learners should use evocative learning set to any learning task, learning materials should be possibly meaningful, and learners’ previous knowledge should be relevant to what they are going to learn. Cognitive organization in the learner is essential in processing information has it assists in encoding and retrieval. When learning, subsumption can be realized through derivative and correlative (Driscoll, 2005).
Derivative subsumption illustrates the learning of fresh instances, which are descriptive of a recognized idea. Correlative subsumption illustrates the expansion or alteration of the past-learned idea. Superordinate learning refers to the state through which the fresh information acquired by a learner is a concept that recounts recognized instances of the concept. Combinatorial learning refers to the initial three learning procedures utilized in acquiring fresh information, which will be ranked below or above past-learned information. Retention of meaningful learning can be enhanced through rehearsals and tests. The readiness of learners is affected by their knowledge processing ability, emotional state, and subsequent learning and understanding.
The formation of schema supports the assimilation of past-learned information. The nature of schema is illustrated through its ability to aid learners in assimilating, organizing, and interpreting information. With respect to schema-based processing, individuals can speedily consolidate new insights into schemata and act without a struggle. When fresh knowledge is perceived and does not equate the schema, schema acquisition and modification occurs. Through this, previously learned information is assimilated. Schemas that classify information through the manner in which they will be utilized are automated as instructions. Cognitive load theory suggests that learning can be boosted by a demonstration of knowledge. Based on the above illustrations, it is apparent that schema aids in the assimilation of past-learned information.
Meaningful learning and schema theory has implications for instruction. Meaningful knowledge can be achieved when prior knowledge is activated and when instructional materials are made useful (Driscoll, 2005). In the absence of the above, meaningful instructions would not be effective. On the other hand, the schema theory aids in the integration of past information. In this regard, for instructions to be effective, they must meet the conditions stipulated by meaningful learning and schema theory.
Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon. Web.