Presently, there are two major classifications of psychological disorders. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) on one hand and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) on the other. While ICD is the product of the World Health Organization, DSM was produced by the American Psychiatric Association. According to Naidu (2010), the classifications are meant to simplify the process of diagnosis. Regardless of where one is located in the world, standard guidelines ensure consistency in diagnosis. The two classifications are discussed as follows.
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Chapter V of the International Classification of Diseases deals with mental as well as behavioral disorders. The classification consists of ten main groups made up of smaller categories that are quite specific. In ICD vocabulary, psychological disorder is a term used to refer to the presence of clinical signs or actions commonly associated with anguish and destabilization of the normal functioning of human beings. Sub-classifications in the different groups include schizophrenia, personality disorders, bipolar disorders, and mental retardation among others. ICD differs from DSM because both personality and mental disorders are considered together (Naidu, 2010). The two are completely broken up under ICD.
DSM depicts a mental disorder as a psychological or behavioral problem that interferes with the usual functioning of an individual. First published in 1994, DSM originally outlined more than 250 psychological disorders. The different categories under DSM are, however, not completely distinct from one another and a common theme underlies all of them. According to Cherry (2014), five major domains can be identified under DSM, which include general medical conditions linked to mental and clinical disorders.
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)? Web.
Naidu, K. M. (2010). Mental Health Nursing. New Delhi, India: Gyan Publishing House.