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Psychology – Sex and Gender Research Paper

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Updated: Sep 7th, 2019


Sex and gender fundamentally illuminate the effects of being male, female or transgendered considering a variety of explanations from different fields. Sex in psychology is explained in a myriad of ways which highlight how women and men behave within the constraints of the society (Fiske, Gilbert & Lindzey 629).

Differentiating sex and gender

Sex is illustrated in genetic/biological terms while gender is expressed through environmental factors. In biological terms, sex bears reference to the condition of being male, female or transgendered considering the reproductive attributes of an individual. Biological expertise has it that these groups differ in associated hormones, chromosomes and reproductive organs. In everyday living, categorization of sex is based on individual evaluation or judgments’ with the exception of the intersex (Unger, 3).

The term gender bears reference to the societal/ communal perceptive of the male and female sex. In collective terms, the dissimilarity that exist between male and female are attributed to the division of labor.

In this sense, gender roles and identity are given a more artistic meaning and understanding. Society possesses stereotypical attitudes and practices which influences the behavior of men and women extensively. Differences in hostility and pro-social behavior between men and women are influenced by the community which houses different individuals.

Impacts of biosocial sex behavior

The distinctions arising from the differences in biological and social aspects in sex are illustrated by different theories of complexity. It is not forgotten that gender is influenced by socio-cultural factors housed by the environment. For example, according to experts, genes are hereditary but their functions are influenced by socio-cultural issues.

On the other hand, biological factors are also influenced by the conditions present within the environmental. As an example boys’ preference for masculine toys is attributed to hormones within the body; however, environmental factors such as parent and friends also play a vital role in infusing attitudes and practices (Unger, 3).

Biosocial influence on division of labor

The nature of labor in the society with respect to male or female characters is influenced by different factors such as biological, environmental and to greater extent socio-cultural concepts (Fiske, Gilbert, and Lindzey, 629). Women bear children placing them in a better position to nurse them in comparison to men. This is despite men’s masculine body and immense strength. Technically, labor is divided in the society on the basis that one sex can perform a task better than the other.

Influence of gender roles on men and women behavior

The conduct of men and women in the society is defined and explained by their roles; however, a person may wonder exactly how this happens. Hormones are known to change from time to time thereby releasing chemicals/substances which influence an individual’s behavior.

Societal stereotypical beliefs also play a role in defining an individual’s behavior as far as sex and related activities are concerned. Cultural aspects portrayed by the wider society indicate that men and women behave differently as per social roles attached to each sex.


In as much as stereotypical behavior is a barrier when talking about change, it is a perfect tool that serves to preserve our cultural and traditional identity. Biological and environmental factors are the key instruments that determine an individual sex and gender. Furthermore, they also explain the role and behavior of persons in the society.

Works Cited

Rhoda, Unger. Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2004, 3

Susan, Fiske. Daniel, Gilbert. & Gardner, Lindzey. Hand book of Social Psychology, 5th Edition, Volume One. New Jersey: John Wiley and sons, 2009, (5), 629

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