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Respiratory Disorder and Nursing Treatment Plan Research Paper


Introduction

With the patient describing such symptoms of a deep cough, the production of mucous, green sputum, and scratchy throat, it is recommended to proceed with the treatment for acute bronchitis. Bronchitis refers to the inflammation of the patient’s bronchial tubes.

This inflammation causes a cough, irritation in the throat, and the occasional shortness of breath. As a rule, bronchitis appears due to the exposure to a virus or factors that irritate breathing, such as air pollution, dust, or tobacco smoke (Khan, Gotter, & Boskey, 2017). Maria’s diagnosis is acute bronchitis because her coughing has been taking place for several weeks while other symptoms of the disease have disappeared.

Pathophysiology of Acute Bronchitis

During the episode of acute bronchitis, the cells that make up the bronchial-lining tissue get irritated, with “the mucous membrane becoming hyperemic and edematous, thus diminishing the function of the bronchi” (Fayyaz & Olade, 2017, para. 1). As a result, the debris clogs the air passage, leading to severe irritation (Fayyaz & Olade, 2017). To deal with the clogging of the passage, the bronchi develop mucus that facilitates a cough that is characteristic of acute bronchitis (Fayyaz & Olade, 2017).

Inflamed bronchial tubes significantly restrict the normal movement of air, subsequently causing wheezing, tightness in the chest, and shortness of breath, which are all alterations associated with the patient’s cough. A cough is a protective reflex that the body uses to “clear the airways through explosive expiration” (Huether & McCance, 2017, p. 687). Inhaled particles such as dust or smoke, pollution, the gradual mucus accumulation in the bronchi, irritation, and inflammation disrupt the receptors in the airway (Huether & McCance, 2017). Such receptors include distal bronchi and alveoli.

Age and Gender

Acute bronchitis does not usually last a long time and does not impose any permanent complications on patients that are normally healthy, as seen in Maria’s case. In the majority of cases, only people with weakened immune systems and other problems with health can experience bronchitis developing into more complex issues such as respiratory failure or pneumonia. Usually, adults aged 45 and older are more likely to develop bronchitis since the disease is linked to the weakened immune system, which deteriorated due to other factors such as diabetes or COPD.

According to Ferre et al. (2012), in women, bronchitis was likely to develop because of the impaired health status and activity; however, socioeconomic factors such as work loss also contributed to the development of bronchitis among women. Overall, Maria’s age is more likely to be a factor that plays a role in the development of her bronchitis rather than her gender. On the other hand, it is important to acknowledge the connections between mental and physical health. As a woman, Maria deals with stress and life problems in a way that is different from men; it can be proposed that gender can also play a role in the development of bronchitis since stress causes an imbalance in the immune system making the organism more susceptible to viruses and irritants.

To conclude, Maria’s case requires the development of a treatment plan to manage her severe cough. Irritants such as smoke and air pollution should be avoided; medication treatment can include bronchodilators to handle the cough. It is recommended for Maria to drink more fluids and have some rest in order to boost her immune system and help the body fight the virus.

References

Fayyaz, J., & Olade, R. (2017). . Web.

Ferre, A., Fuhrman, C., Zureik, M., Chouaid, C., Vergnenegre, A., Huchon, G.,… Roche, N. (2012). Chronic bronchitis in the general population: Influence of age, gender and socio-economic conditions. Respiratory Medicine, 103(6), 467-471.

Huether, S., & McCance, K. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St Louis, MO: Mosby.

Khan, A., Gotter, A., & Boskey, E. (2017). . Web.

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