Respiratory System Learning Activity
An adult client with a history of respiratory issues requires considerable information regarding how he/she can manage the situation while minimizing the probable risks. In this context, there are numerous instructions and information that the concerned nurse should include in the client’s educational program. Firstly, the nurse should unveil the significance of executing the mentioned respiratory examination. This incorporates what is meant by the condition and complications associated with it. Another information and instruction entail ‘spirometry’, which refers to “the measuring of breath,” (NHANES, 2008). The client should understand that spirometry will encompass a pulmonary function test (PFT) targeted to assess the quantity and velocity of air that an individual can inhale and exhale. Additionally, results attained from the test will be used to estimate lung function. It will also help in the diagnosis of definite respiratory disorders (Scanlan, Heuer & Sinopoli, 2010).
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The nurse should consider various issues when addressing risk factors associated with respiratory diseases. Firstly, the concerned nurse should realize that the major determinants of respiratory diseases are connected to environmental factors, socio-economic provisions, and cultural factors (including smoking). Additionally, the nurse should address the available risk factors that can predispose an individual to acute respiratory complications (Guccione, Wong & Avers, 2012). It is also important to address how to avoid such risks. These provisions will be important to the client.
The risk reduction and health promotion strategies that the nurse should include when educating this client vary considerably. Firstly, the client should be told not to smoke or languish in stuffy areas. This means that the client should live in well-ventilated places, avoid smoking, and take prescribed medications with promptness. The health promotion strategies should include attending to regular pulmonary function tests (PFT) and adhering to the doctor’s advice regarding the condition (NHANES, 2008).
Peripheral Vascular and Lymphatic Systems Learning Activity
Virchow’s triad discusses three factors that contribute to the development of venous thrombosis. The concerned triad forms a credible theory on how venous thrombosis can develop based on different predisposing factors. It is evident that prevention and early detection of DVT are critical nursing tasks, especially in the care of hospitalized patients and patients with minimized mobility. The first component of Virchow’s triad is venous stasis. This refers to the reduced blood flow within the blood veins. Other components of this category incorporate turbulence and mitral stenosis (Torshin, 2007). Consequently, DVT might arise due to a blood clot deep inside the body. Another component is the ‘hypercoagulability’ of the concerned blood. Evidently, blood might contain an enhanced tendency to clot hence increasing the chances of experiencing DVT. This contributes to the ideologies fronted by Virchow’s triad. The third component of the mentioned triad comprises changes in the blood vessel. In this context, damages to the walls of blood vessels contribute considerably to the development of DVT (Abela, 2004). Various medical conditions contribute to the prevalence of DVT. These include cancer, strain, age, surgery, immobilization, and antiphospholipid disorder.
It is proper to use Homan’s sign as a diagnostic tool for evaluating DVT. Firstly, the process is simple and can be carried out anywhere provided the examiner is experienced in interpreting its outcomes. This is a vital provision when considered critically. Since the examination (examiner’s sudden dorsiflexion) occurs when the knee is completely extended, this triggers the exhibition of the available DVT (Lippincott, 2008). It is possible to notice where the thrombosis has occurred through a thorough examination. In some cases, the process is unreliable; however, it can still be used as a diagnostic tool for evaluating DVT.
Abela, G. (2004). Peripheral vascular disease: Basic diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Guccione, A., Wong, R. & Avers, D. (2012). Geriatric physical therapy. St. Louis, CA: Elsevier/Mosby.
Lippincott, W. (2008). Nursing: Interpreting signs & symptoms. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
NHANES. (2008). Respiratory Health Spirometry Procedures Manual. Web.
Scanlan, C., Heuer, A. & Sinopoli, L. (2010). Certified respiratory therapist exam review guide. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Torshin, I. (2007). Physiology and medicine. New York, NY: Nova Biomedical Books.