The RTI model presupposes the use of a differentiated approach aimed at helping students to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge. This methodology is referred to as tiered instruction and intervention and implies the use of three-level interventions (Shapiro, n.d.). Tier 1 interaction applies to all the students in the class; Tier 2 interventions are aimed at addressing particular issues of a smaller group of student (up to 8), and Tier 3 intervention is used in small groups of 3 to five students who have quite specific problems (Sanchez & O’Connor, 2015). Jasmine has problems with reading and math that require all three types of interventions.
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The reading interventions for Jasmine will be as follows. The tier 1 intervention to train reading comprehension involves reading a passage, finding, and underlying meaningful words that can facilitate text comprehension and help with retelling the stories. First, the teacher asks students to underline meaningful words. Then, students’ ideas are discussed, and the teacher writes down the meaningful words on the board.
The tier 2 intervention will include reading passages and watching a video where corresponding pictures and meaningful words are revealed. Wanzek, Wexler, Vaughn & Ciullo (2010) claim that the intervention facilitated by the use of video is more effective since children having difficulties with comprehension develop certain patterns they can use in the future. Images help them comprehend texts easier.
Tier 3 intervention will include the use of flashcards containing words important for text comprehension as well as corresponding pictures. The teacher asks the student to match the words in the text and the flashcards. The teacher may also help the student arrange the flashcards in the correct order.
Jasmine also has significant problems with dividing without a calculator. Tier 1 intervention can be a Bingo game. Students write down several division problems on flashcards. The teacher solves the problems and dictates the answers to students who create their Bingo cards. They are allowed to put the numbers in any grid. The teacher then shows the problems and the first student to say the correct number can cross the number in the Bingo card.
Tier 2 intervention will include asking students to count in rows consisting of three or five (or any number of) dots. Thus, the student will count in fives or threes, and so on. The students write down the number on the right of each row. Each column has the title (the number of dots), and there is a number of each row. Therefore, students train multiplication, which can be easily transformed into division problems with the help of an eraser. Students can remove some rows and say the number of the dots left.
Tier 3 intervention will include simple division problems with matches (or any objects that can stand for people) and circles. The teacher asks a student to arrange people at tables at a wedding or a party. The student cannot use a calculator, but she can count the number of seats at each table.
It is possible to note that the three types of interventions used with Jasmine can help her address her reading problems as well as issues she has with math. The students will work with other students in different settings. There can be some issues when it comes to Tier 1 interventions, but Jasmine will be able to hear corrects answers, which will be beneficial for her. More individualized interventions (Tier 2 and 3) will facilitate the process of skills acquisition.
Sanchez, V., & O’Connor, R. (2015). Building tier 3 intervention for long-term slow growers in grades 3-4: A pilot study. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 30(4), 171-181.
Shapiro, E.S. (n.d.). Tiered instruction and intervention in a response-to-intervention model.
Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., & Ciullo, S. (2010). Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: A synthesis of 20 years of research. Read Writ, 23(8), 889-912.