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Process Writing Approaches
The educational professionals need to select a suitable strategy for the education of writing skills to young deaf and hard of hearing students, as teaching writing is often associated with the presence of challenges due to its dependency on the spoken language (Giddens, 2009). Firstly, the instruments such as Fitzgerald Key and Wing symbols were used to teach the word order (Marschark & Spencer, 2011). Nonetheless, these strategies did not contribute to the improvement of the complexity of the sentences and enhancement of the vocabulary. Consequently, the development of the process writing approaches was aimed at the advancement of the utilization of genres and the improvement of grammatical structures while encouraging paying attention to the content (Marschark & Spencer, 2011).
In this instance, one of the techniques is monitoring the overall writing process of the students starting from the idea generation to the final writing (Pike, 2011). Nonetheless, the deaf and hard of hearing students have to be supervised more precisely to assure the capability of the process to enhance their writing skills. In the end, this instrument tends to have a beneficial influence on the development of writing while applying an individual approach to each student.
Another approach is the implementation of the interactive writing strategy, as it implies that students with hearing issues and a teacher participate in the construction and composition of the text simultaneously (Giddens, 2009). In this instance, the study revealed that this method has a positive contribution to the social development of children, the ability to understand the language in the given context, and the capability to identify the words and sentences while determining their meaning (Giddens, 2009). It could be said that this method has to be actively implemented as an educational practice due to the capability to increase deaf children’s communication skills, which are presented in the written form.
Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction
It remains apparent that different forms of interactive writing tend to be present due to the dissimilar emphasis and attention to the particular learning principles. Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) implies a combination of interactive and strategic doctrines to encourage learning among children with hard of hearing (Dostal & Wolbers, 2014). In this case, SIWI contributes to having an explicit and implicit learning practice for the individuals while focusing on balanced tasks, a substantial level of independence, visual support, and authenticity (Dostal & Wolbers, 2014). It could be said that this approach also contributes to the advancement of the level of expression and improvement of written English skills.
In turn, SIWI principles can be implemented in different forms of activities. The most supported one is groups guided learning, as it focuses on the high participation of the teacher in the group writing tasks (The University of Tennessee, 2016). In turn, the small group or paired-writing is also often used for the implementation of SIWI features (The University of Tennessee, 2016). Nonetheless, it is not preferred due to the vitality of independence for the completion of these tasks and activities. Lastly, the individual writing assignments also take place but are regarded as high complexity and not appropriate for young children’s education (The University of Tennessee, 2016).
Balanced and Interactive Language Instruction
Alternatively, the balanced and interactive language instructions imply the development of the written skills while associating it with the spoken language (Farris, Fuhler, & Walther, 2004). It could be said that it is beneficial for deaf students, as they have an opportunity to improve their communication skills while collaborating with the different members of society. In turn, the combination of writing with the interactivity eases the learning process for the students with hard of hearing.
In this case, one of the activities related to a well-adjusted and interactive language approach is the morning message, which is a short balanced and interactive assessment (Wolbers, 2008). It implies selecting one person as a leader and a topic selector while others actively participate in the creation of the text (Wolbers, 2008). It could be said that it is advantageous for the socialization and written expression simultaneously.
American Sign Language and Writing Skills
Lastly, the application of sign language cannot be underestimated, as it can be actively utilized to advance the writing skills. In this instance, the expansion of the vocabulary and lexical and grammatical structures while building associations with the sign language will contribute to the development of the writing skills among students with hard of hearing (Nussbaum, Waddy-Smith, & Doyle, 2012). In this case, it assists in the establishment of correlations between written words and sign language while determining the definition of words.
The strategies such as brainstorming, the introduction of the vocabulary charts, and other visual tactics critically affect the establishment and understanding of the link between sign language and written words (Brocop & Persall, 2009). In this instance, it could be said that the strategies have compliance with the principles mentioned in the description of the other techniques. Nevertheless, the primary difference is the essentiality of American Sign Language as a basis for the development of writing skills.
Brocop, F., & Persall, B. (2009). Writing strategies for learners who are deaf. Web.
Dostal, H., & Wolbers, K. (2014). Developing language and writing skills of deaf and hard of hearing students: A simultaneous approach. Literacy Research and Instruction, 53, 245-268. Web.
Farris, P., Fuhler, C., & Walther, M. (2004).Teaching reading a balanced approach to today’s classrooms. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Web.
Giddens, E. (2009). Teaching written language to students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Web.
Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. (2011). The Oxford handbook of deaf studies, language, and education. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Web.
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Nussbaum, D., Waddy-Smith, B., & Doyle, J. (2012). Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: Considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills. Seminars in Speech and Language, 33(4), 310-321. Web.
Pike, G. (2011). Assessing generic outcomes of college: Selections from assessment measures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Web.
Wolbers, K. (2008). Using balanced and interactive writing instruction to improve the higher order and lower order writing skills of deaf students. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(2), 257-277. Web.