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Schönbrunn Palace Vienna, Austria Research Paper

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Updated: Jan 8th, 2020


In each country, there is a place that attracts attention of many people from different parts of the world. Such sites have their own history, ideas, and impacts on the citizens as well as on the tourists. There are many reasons of why countries find it obligatory and interesting to have their own sights and introduce them to the tourists in a variety of ways.

Observing the site of a particular city is a frequent activity during which a tourist is free to learn more about the traditions of the country, about the preferences of the citizens, and about the intentions inherent to people around. The point is that visiting sights is one of the first reasons of many tourists. It is a kind of passion by means of which people are ready to organize their travels. Sometimes it is even hard to choose a country for visit as almost each country has a number of cities where numerous amazing sites can be found.

Austria is the country that deserves the right to be mentioned as the country with rich past, unbelievable power, and true intentions to become better with time.

Being one of the smallest countries in the world, Austria is regarded to be a memorable birthplace of amazing music that spreads around the whole world, the source of inspiration for many writers and artists, the brightest example of how imperial past may define the quality of palaces, castles, and other buildings[1].

Evaluation of the country and its cultural heritage begins with the discussion of the sights of its capital. Vienna is the Austria’s capital, its primary city, and its cultural and political center. First settlements in Vienne have been found at the beginning of the 15 BC[2], this is why it is possible to admit that the history of the city as well as its major sites is bright indeed.

In this paper, one of the main sites of Vienna, Austria, will be evaluated from a variety of perspectives to prove that the city as well as the country has a lot to say using its past experience, its own ambitions, interests, and ideas.

The Schönbrunn Palace had its roots from the middle of the 14th century when Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II made a decision to buy the territory close to the Wien River and called it Katterburg[3]. The main reason of why the emperor bought the land was passion to hunting, and the chosen territory was a magnificent masterpiece where a number of people could enjoy the process of hunting as well as the results of meetings.

During the 14-15th centuries, one of the main interests of the Austrian citizens was hunting, this is why people tried to find as much land as possible to meet their demands and create appropriate conditions for life. This is why it is not a surprise to observe the land of the future Schönbrunn Palace as the main place for hunting: massive landscapes, nature, and sun light were available for people.

The role of the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna is crucial indeed. It is not only one of the most significant cultural heritages in Austria. It is a place where a number of emperors and ordinary people spend their time being busy with their duties and completing their functions. Each century is a nee epoch under which the palace was improved and introduced to the public in a new way.

Each emperor of the Republic of Austria made an attempt to add something new to the palace, and the result of such intentions turns out to be a crucial cultural site in Vienna where more 2 million people come annually[4]. The Baroque beauty continues attracting attention of the whole world: people want to learn more the style and the history inherent to the palace, and the constructions offered serve as the best material to be considered.

The Schönbrunn Palace is the site with a long and rather captivating history. The development of the palace may be compared to the development of the whole country: the emperors came to the place to meet their demands, enjoy the time spend, and prove their worth for society. Almost the same traits could be observed on the political arena, this is why it sounds reasonable to compare the palace with the whole city or even with the whole country.

When people visit Vienna, they are offered to visit the Schönbrunn Palace at the beginning as they may get a chance to observe the peculiar features of the country. Nowadays, UNESCO chooses this attraction as one of the main objects of their protection. Such decision proves the significance of the chosen site and the unbelievable role of the palace in the history of the city.

The Schönbrunn Palace is one of the most memorable sites in Vienna, Austria; its history, development, and role in the citizens’ lives is crucial indeed as it contains the memories and impressions of so many people. The architectural style, origins, and construction of the palace itself is unique, this is why it is always interesting to investigate such sights and make use of the information found to comprehend better the peculiar features of the whole nation.


Description of the Site. The Schönbrunn Palace is the site of Vienne, its pride, and its historical monument. There are a number of sources which may be found to evaluate the worth of the chosen site and its role in the lives of millions of people. Each building is created purposefully, and the palace under analysis has its own purposes, theme, and urgency.

The Schönbrunn Palace has its own peculiarities, and it is very important to trace its history from the very first days of its appearance. Nowadays, the Schönbrunn Palace is the building that contains exactly 1,441 rooms, and the size of each room differs considerably from each other. Some apartments may be used for rent as they do not belong to the museum itself, and only 40 rooms are available for the tourists. The rest of the apartments are used by the museum representatives accordingly.

The first design of the palace was introduced in 1688 by one of the most influential Austrian architect, Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach[5].

His numerous contributions to the Baroque period made him popular in the world, and his profound knowledge of the Baroque peculiarities made many rich people choose this architect as the leading professional to construct new buildings which depict the essence of the period considered.

During the next 15 years, it was built. The period between 1696 and 1712 under the Emperor Leopold I was one of the first significant in the development of the palace.

The emperor wanted to create the place for his son, Joseph I. Still the resources for creation the construction were gathered as a result of numerous wars, this is why the sources proved that “Austria’s treasury…would not support the ambitious undertaking; and the original plans were never carried out.”[6]

However, the history of the palace began far before Leopold I thought to create the palace. As it has been mentioned in the paper, Maximilian II bought the land to hunt. It was the place of Katterburg. With time, the name of the palace was changed to the Schönbrunn Palace in the name of the artesian water.

The name of Elenore Gonzaga has to be mentioned as the historical figure whose impact on the development of the construction was also crucial. She connected her palace with the already established Katterburg mansion and announced the name of Schönbrunn as the main name of the territory.

As soon as the territory got its final name, emperor Leopold I was eager to create the palace[7] and decided to use the services offered by a famous Johann von Erlach. The first attempt to design the palace was not too much successful as architect offered too dark draft that contained utopian characteristics. It was not enough to make use of utopian characteristics, this is why more realistic design was in demand.

Architectural Peculiarities and Origins of the Schönbrunn Palace. Taking about the architectural peculiarities of the building, it is necessary to admit that the late Baroque, also known as Rococo, was the main theme in the palace. Several inclined approaches were comprised with the colonnades and some waterworks to create an appropriate place for hunting.

As the Baroque style was used, the designer found it effective to arrange the building around the central axis. The chosen compact structure and the properly organized stairways were successfully flanked by the wings which accommodated stabling.

Such constructions were lately used as the place for parades. However, Leopold I died in 1705, and the palace remained to be unfinished. Another attempt to improve the place was made by the Emperor Charles VI. He used the palace to hunt , and the constructions themselves was not improved by this historical leader.

With time, Charles VI gifted the palace to his daughter, Maria Theresa, whose ideas and activities were the most important in the history of the palace. As soon as Maria Theresa was crowned, she wanted to turn the palace into the imperial summer residence. What she thought to use were the ideas of a modern Austrian designer Nicolo Pacassi.

The decision to reshape the already improved palace was successful, and the historian called that period as the Theresianian epoch as a result of which the palace became a significant centre of the empire in Austria and the place where the imperial family could have rest. The changes which took place during the 18th century were crucial for the palace and its residents.

Maria Theresa tried to do everything possible to create the most comfortable and the most beautiful place. The practical skills of Pacassi turned out to be rather helpful to introduce the image of the palace. Though the spatial structure of the building remained to be the same as von Erlach offered, the current designer made it necessary to change the east wind of the palace and offered Chapel Staircase which promoted the possibility to enter other rooms of the palace.

The central flight of the stairs underwent certain changes as well: an amazing carriageway was introduced in addition to the Small and Great Galleries of the palace. The late Baroque was evident in the constructions: playful design, small sculptures, and ornamentation were used to introduce a new image of the building.

The building improved was much more convenient for its inhabitants. Now, it was possible to get to different rooms from sweeping flights. However, it is necessary to admit that during some formal events and occasions, people had to take long walks to visit the audience chambers and pass through the Parade Court Stairway. The court ceremonies were an integral part of the palace life, this is why Maria Theresa wanted to create appropriate conditions under which political activities could be organized.

Another architectural improvement of the palace was based on the side wings which were used provide the residents with the necessary accommodations.

The Cavalier Wings made it possible for the servants achieve the necessary room within a short period of time. The imperial family was growing constantly, and with time, Maria Theresa was in need of Pacassi’s services: the west wing had to be enlarged considerably as the need of extra rooms was evident. In addition to the architectural improvements, it was decided to use oil paintings on the walls.

The works by Bernardo Bellotto were frequently used by the imperial family. The idea to use stucco-work decorations was another interesting component of the Rococo period. Frescoes by Guglielmi and decorations by Bolla became important contributions to the Schönbrunn Palace.

One of the most crucial points in the development of the Schönbrunn Palace was the death of Theresa’s husband, the Emperor Franz Stephan. For a long period of time, it was him who inspired Theresa to develop the palace and improve each piece of the construction.

During the next several years, it was not necessary to create some new rooms but change the essences of some rooms in the east wing, the most favorite emperor’s part of the palace. Maria Theresa wanted to create several memorial rooms to appreciate the role of the emperor in the family as well as in the country. It was decided to use costly material and furniture to appreciate the activities of the emperor.

The final activity began by Maria Theresa was all about the improvements of the garden designed by von Hohenberg. Such architectural features like the Neptune Fountain and the Obelisk Fountain made the garden more beautiful. Maria Theresa was happy with the results achieved, still, she did not observe the final improvements as she died in 1780. Still, the image created with the help of this person is now offered to the visitors of Vienna, Austria.

After her death, not much attention was paid to the conditions of the Schönbrunn Palace. However, when Franz Joseph was crowed, he shared his passion to the place he was born with the citizens of Vienna. The Schönbrunn Palace was his favorite place, this is why it was evident that the vast majority of the emperor’s life was spent at Schönbrunn.

One of his main contributions was the development of the zoo on the territory of the palace. Nowadays, the zoo is one of the oldest zoos in the whole world. The ideas of Maria Theresa were too bright, and there was no need to change the design or improve the location of the stairs.

The only aspect that was mobilized was furnishing. Private rooms were refurbished, the use of silk on walls and furniture was inherent to that period of time, and certain attention to stucco decorations was paid again. Rococo interiors became rather popular, this is why it was unreasonable to make some additions just in order to be memorized. The emperor chose more difficult way – he tried to save the palace as it was and give it to the future generation.

The end of the 19th century was rather successful for the palace. However, the events which took place in the middle of the 20th century were catastrophic for the land. The World War II brought numerous destructions: the palace was damaged considerably, and it was hard to believe that the construction could be restored[8].

However, at the beginning of the 1960, the Schönbrunn Palace was introduced as one of the most memorable attractions of the whole city. It was the place where the history was created. It was the evidence of how various emperors and their wives contributed the development of the country and offered their own ideas of how art had to be offered to people.

The Schönbrunn Palace and the Role of the Construction in the Country. There are many reasons of why the chosen site plays a very important role in the lives of so many people. In fact, not only the citizens of Vienna are interested in the development of the palace. There are many political figures and celebrities who are eager to contribute the development of the Schönbrunn Palace.

The cultural and beauty aspects are taken into consideration when the evaluation of the palace takes place. In 1996, UNESCO added the site under analysis to the famous World Heritage List defining the Schönbrunn Palace as one of the most outstanding values where the traits of Baroque could be properly observed. Another peculiar feature of the construction is that a number of people tried to add something new to the already introduced site, and the vast majority of contributions were successful indeed.

Among the variety of rooms of the palace, it is hard to define the one that had to be recognized as the best one. Each room is a unique vision of the world with its all pros and cons. To get a clear picture of the palace, it is possible to discuss several rooms in brief.

One of the most popular rooms is considered to be the Great Gallery. For a long period of time, it was the main audience for the emperors. However, under the reign of Maria Theresa, the room became the main room of the whole palace. All crucial meetings and events took place in the room. Being 43 meters long, the room could have several hundreds of people at the same time.

This room was one of those that was considerably damaged during the World War Second, however, at the beginning of the 1950s, the room was reconstructed. The Small Gallery was used for smaller occasions in comparison to the Great Gallery. The main changes in the room also took place under the reign of Maria Theresa. She wanted to create an authentic impression, this is why candlelight was frequently used.

Within a short period of time, the idea to use shimmering surfaces on the wall was implemented. Though the following room is not huge, its role in the palace is still crucial. The Hall of Ceremonies was primary created as Francis Stephen’s antechamber. For a long period of time, the imperial family gathered in the room before some important meetings.

The monumental paintings used on the walls mad the room a memorable place where the history was made. The paintings of the Isabella Parma, the work Musikfest, and the pictures which depict the wedding ceremonies as well as the wars could be found in the room.

The list of the rooms of the Schönbrunn Palace is far from being full. Piano nobile is the place where Stairs Cabinet, Yellow and Red Salons, Mirror Room, Lantern Room, Chinese Cabinets, etc could be found. There are also several rooms on the ground floor which were used by the emperors. These private rooms are the Goess Apartments and the Gisela Apartment.

Taking the tour in the palace, it is possible to learn that each room has its own story. Some rooms were the places of birth for political leaders, and some rooms were the places where romantic relations of the members of the imperial families were developed. Observing the conditions under which people had to live during the last five centuries, it is possible to comprehend which lifestyles were more preferable and which ideas different people liked to support.

The imperial era in Austria was rich and amazing, and the construction that was developed during that period of time served as the main evidence of how passionate and inspired the members of imperial families were. It is also necessary to underline that the construction of the palace itself could not be as bright as it was for a long period of time without the amazing gardens that surround the building.

There were a number of possibilities to use the land, however, several people made a decision to use it as the main attraction, the summer residence, and the place where official meetings and occasions should took place, and looking at the Schönbrunn Palace, it is possible to say that the chosen ideas were appropriate for the city and for the Austrian nation.


Value and Importance of Schönbrunn Palace. The importance of every residence which was built a few centuries ago can be merely historic and architectural though the Schönbrunn Palace with is magnificent gardens is situated in Vienna Austria and symbolizes the major events in the cultural history of the country with regard to the influence of other European countries and monarchies with their cultural preferences.

The cultural tendencies can be found reflected in the architectural decisions of the Schönbrunn Palace and the Gardens whereas the image of this residence of Habsburg monarchs can be found engraved on the silver coin while the palace itself is in the list of World Heritage by UNESCO.

Architecture as an element of historic analysis. The primary image of the Schönbrunn Palace can be the starting point for the analysis of architectural and, therefore, historic value of this magnificent architectural unit which became a residence of Habsburg monarchs and, later, one of the symbols of Vienna as a historic component of Europe with its heritage in terms of cultural and architectural elements.

In this respect, the first image of this place can be seen without the palace itself in the copper engraving of 1672 with Katterburg.[9] As such, it is possible to see the initial image of the palace with the area near the building which was later used for gardens, orangery, zoo, and the palace itself when the architecturally magnificent unit was added to the original building by one of the successive Habsburg monarchs who used it as a residence.

The entire history of this architectural unit can be reflected in the gallery of images demonstrating changes in design of the palace in different periods of world culture with regard to trends and movements in architecture. In other words, the analysis of changes can be seen through comparison and contrast between the original version of palace and gardens or territory that was later occupied with gardens and parks, a zoo and an orangery.

The shape of gardens as well as the shape of buildings usually is used for evaluation of architectural style because all these traits contribute greatly to creation of an integrated image that reflects success of the inhabitants of the building and the tastes with regard to architectural preferences. The inhabitants of the Schönbrunn Palace impacted greatly the changes that occurred in this building and related areas making it one of the sources of historic evidence.

The importance of this place is more of historic and cultural nature though many touristic routs are directed towards Vienna as a place where one can find something interesting and captivating. Taking into account the significance of monarchic traditions, it is necessary to consider this palace as one of the primary sources of information about the tendencies in decoration and architecture.

Moreover, the historic importance of the building can also be proven through analysis of the architects who contributed to its design and creation of remarkable features of the palace and gardens. In addition, the historic analysis of the Schönbrunn Palace would be incomplete without discussion of the architectural trends that influenced the current image of this monument of culture and architecture.

Changes in architectural design as reflections of trends in Europe. The changes in architecture that took place in the world and Europe during the period of the palace existence were influential for the architecture of the Schönbrunn Palace and its gardens and can serve as the historic evidence of the building’s significance. The importance of sites can be traced as well as the archeological excavations can be used to analyze different layers of the ground with regard to the different cultures covered behind each layer.

The same technique can be applied to the analysis and evaluation of the historic and architectural value of the Schönbrunn Palace because the architectural trends that were spread in Europe were implemented into the design of the palace and related territories; namely, the architectural design of other significant buildings in Europe could have great importance for the style of this palace.

The significance influence can be seen in the Schönbrunn Palace taking into account the tendencies of Renaissance and Baroque. Besides, the original design of the building as we can see it today was created by Fischer von Erlach “to surpass the French king’s palace of Versailles.”[10] In other words, the major impact was perceived from other European cities and the major buildings that were influential in terms of culture, fashion, and architecture.

For instance, it is possible to trace the features of Renaissance in the Schönbrunn Palace with its pompous celebration of humanistic theory and role of self-awareness. The touch of Baroque is also observable in this building because it was the movement successive of the Renaissance and reflected the desire for luxury and rich ornaments that can be considered an integral part of Baroque architecture.

Observing the reflection of trends in European architectural traditions, it is necessary to review the original plan of the building and plans and analyze the changes that were not supposed to be made though appeared to become a part of the final version of the building. The original plan was not called the Schönbrunn Palace; it was Katterburg[11] while the additional buildings were created under the influence of inhabitants of the palace and their preferences in architectural styles and movements.

As such, the most decisive changes in the architectural ensemble of the Schönbrunn Palace were made under the influence of the empress Maria Theresa when she used this as her residence for recreation and Eleonore Gonzaga used it as her permanent residence after she became a widow. In this respect, a touch of an empress is still perceived in the Schönbrunn Palace with its gardens and related buildings.

Meetings and agreements. The meetings and agreements usually reflect one of the significant values of buildings because the peace treaties and conventions are signed as symbols of changes.

As the Schönbrunn Palace was a demonstration of changes in cultural and architectural life of the country and preferences of its inhabitants, it can be also treated as an architectural unit that evokes association with the positive changes in the political lives of the countries.

As such, the Treaty of Schönbrunn was signed 1809 when the Austrian War was over and other countries of Europe could receive a part of the Austrian Empire because they were allies of France in this war.

So, some parts of Austria went to Bavaria, Russia, Bavaria, and Grand Duchy of Warsaw as a result of great Napoleonic Wars that took place in the early nineteenth century 1803-1815.[12] In this respect one of the historic values of the Schönbrunn Palace is that it can be considered a place of remarkable events in the history of Europe.

The historical importance of this site can be also proven through analysis of other meetings that took place in the Schönbrunn Palace in modern era as a reflection of the political changes in the perception of the countries by each other.

For instance, the meeting between the President of the United States of America John F. Kennedy and the leader of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev took place in the Schönbrunn Palace in 1961. The meeting was aimed at discussing the situation in the agricultural sector, the aeronautics, and the first space flight of the man.[13]

Though this meeting was not the breaking point of the hostility and tension between these two countries, it can be considered an attempt in melting the ice down and bringing the relationships onto a brand-new level with regard to possibility of cooperation and partnership in different sectors of human activity. So, the value of the Schönbrunn Palace situated in Vienna can also be treated as the place for finding a comm0on language even when people come from different continents.

This place can be used as a museum as it currently plays such a role or can also be implemented as a place for peaceful conventions and regulations to bring partnership forward instead of making agreements on the bombing of civil population as done by the country-members by UNO. In this respect, the historical value demonstrates the essence of arranging the conflicts in a peaceful way with the help of the kings’ residence which presupposes polite and respectful manner of conversation.

Residence of historic persons. The building can serve as a museum or as a public place where people meet and do something together. However, a building suchlike the Schönbrunn Palace was originally built as a residence of Habsburg monarchs.

To be more exact, the recreational functions of this place should be emphasized because this palace was originally used for recreational purposes as the monarchs used it for hunting and having some rest in summer.

So, the start with, it is necessary to tell about Eleonore Gonzaga who adored this place for its nature and peaceful conditions where she could hunt; the palace received her special when she became a widow and this became her permanent residence.[14]

She was the first person to introduce changes into the original architectural plan which could be seen as the mansion whereas a palace was added to it to make an architectural ensemble full of integrity and magnificence in the period of between 1638 and 1643.

The next author of changes was the architect of Emperor Leopold I, von Erlach who attempted to surpass Versailles in magnificence and magnitude. However, the original draft of the redesign was not acknowledged and the palace was shaped in the way as we can see it today regarding a few changes made by the successive resident of the palace.

As it was previously mentioned, the period of the palace’s reconstructions coincides with the changing tendencies in the architectural styles and movements in Europe. As such, the next resident was Maria Theresa who enjoyed Rococo style in architecture and wanted to reshape the building in accordance with the major characteristics of this movement.[15]

The remaining changes were not as influential as the abovementioned because the residence was not later reshaped or changed in accordance with contemporary styles or preferences of Habsburg monarchs though it was perceived as their residence, especially in the twentieth century when Emperor Franz Josef I did not try to impact the status or role of the palace.

The Schönbrunn Palace with its gardens was treated as the permanent or recreational residence of monarchs with regard to traditions of the royal family and reflection of their tastes on the architectural style and decorations including gardens and orangery. Special attention should be given to this place as it is still perceived as a residence of monarchs and the place of political meetings though it has a status of a museum and a historical heritage of Vienna and Europe in general.

Coin. The coin is one of the symbols of the state’s independence and every country tries to introduce its own currency as a reflection of the sovereignty and freedom of people and ability to do business. The image of the Schönbrunn Palace was decided to become one of the motifs of the commemorative silver coins valued €10.[16],[17]

Though the coin is comparatively new and does not reflect the historical significance itself, the images selected for it as a motif has a great historic value in terms of the heritage. The coin can reflect the significant event in the life of the country and its people or some changes that took place in its history; people that made great contributions to the country’s prosperity can also be reflected on coins and currency as symbols of their historic value.

Architectural units such as palaces, parks, squares, churches, and cathedrals often find reflection on currencies and other means of reflecting the events and concepts. As such, the Schönbrunn Palace served as a motif for the commemorative silver coin issued in 2003 as a part of series reflecting the historically significant places of Austria.

The coin as well as a picture where the palace can be painted is aimed at reflecting the significance and beauty of the site with regard to the cultural and historical value of it for the nation and the world.

In this respect, the fact that the palace was chosen as a motif for the commemorative solver coin means that the value of the Schönbrunn Palace with its beautiful gardens and orangery is great and the nation wants to share this value with the global community with the help of coins and other means of reflecting the historical significance f the site.

UNESCO World Heritage list. The UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization which has specific funds and programs. One of the programs of this organization is aimed at protecting the cultural heritage of our planet with regard to the places and objects that serve special attention and investments for maintenance and protection.

At the same time, the historical significance is also important for the organization which means that they are searching for unique monuments of architecture and culture in order to protect those from the ruination and negative impact of globalization, pollution, and other destructive tendencies that exist in contemporary world.

In this respect, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of the UNESCO World Heritage list that includes the places all around the world that are considered to have special historic and cultural value for each nation in particular and for the humankind in general.

There is no information about the original plan of the Schönbrunn Palace though there is a detailed plan of the palace made by the UNESCO.[18] The plan reflects the area on which the place and gardens including the orangery and zoo are located with regard to the changing tendencies in building and construction in neighboring areas.

In this respect, it is necessary to review the area as it is described by the UNESCO experts with regard to the inscription status. The report on the twentieth session of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage is aimed at explaining the real value of the Schönbrunn Palace and its gardens taking into account the conservation status and the necessity of protecting this building and related areas that became the property of a museum which is appropriately maintained.[19]

As such, the fact that the palace was the residence of the Hapsburg emperors and the changes in its architectural style is reflected in the summary of the features by UNESCO who made the decision to protect it as an element of the cultural heritage. This means that the architectural style and the fact of residence of monarchs can be considered decisive for protection of the palace.

One of the obstacles seen by the commission of UNESCO includes changes in the architectural plan of the neighboring zones of the Schönbrunn Palace and the gardens that can be damaged in terms of the image and overall landscape of the palace.[20] The report on the conference by UNESCO reflects the value of the palace as well though makes an emphasis on the architectural styles and reflection of preferences and aspirations of Habsburg monarchs in this aspect.[21]

The overall value of the Schönbrunn Palace can be focused on the monarchs and architecture. However, the main importance of this site reflects the significance of the architectural changes and the attempts of the world organizations to protect its integrity and status and enable the country were the palace is situated (in this case, the country is Austria while there are many different cultural and natural components from the heritage list) to maintain the site properly and pass it to the next generations of citizens.

Touristic value. The touristic value of different sites preconditions the ability of the officials to maintain the site properly and invest money into maintenance and protection of the site from ruination and commitment of vandalism. In this respect, it is necessary to review the importance of the Schönbrunn Palace and the number of programs aimed at protecting the site and the components that also reflect the significance of the palace for tourists that are eager to visit the palace every year and their number is not being changed.

The touristic value is reflected in the historical and cultural importance of this site because tourists like to learn more about the objects that a pertaining to the history of the humankind in different periods of human history.

The oldest existing zoo. The zoo can be considered one of the greatest values of the city, especially those with long history and great collections of animals from all parts of the planet regarding the successful location on the territory of the Schönbrunn Palace.

The benefits of such location can be described because this influences greatly the number of visitors of the zoo which became an integral part of the palace and is protected under the decision of the UNESCO Committee in accordance to which the palace is listed as a unit that requires protection as a culturally significant monument of history located in Vienna, Austria.

So, the number of visitors is sure to be maintained due to the status of the palace and the related territory that contributes greatly to the magnificence and the overall landscape of the site. In other words, the beneficial location of the zoo should not be questioned whereas the touristic value of this site should be discussed because every tourist that happens to be on the territory of the Schönbrunn Palace have an opportunity to visit this zoo without travelling a lot.

The beneficial location and the total area of the palace with gardens and all other related objects enables the tourists to visit a few objects on the same day without being concerned about the costs that should be spent on tickets for transportation in cases when different sites are located in different parts of the city.

In other words, the zoo is of special importance because people that would visit the Schönbrunn Palace would definitely like to visit the zoo due to the convenience of location and an opportunity to visit a few sites at once. Moreover, the location of different related sites close to one major site makes it a kind of a complex unit that is perceived as a unit and tourists do not consider the zoo as a place that should be visited as a separate part of the touristic program.

In addition, a tourist that visits a palace is sure to be interested in learning about other details and facts related to this historic site whereas the zoo is considered to be one of the oldest zoos existing till the current moment. The value of the palace is strengthened with the help of the zoo while the popularity of the zoo enables its managers to enrich the collection of animals to sustain their high level appropriate for the palace.

Orangery. When the territory was purchased where the Schönbrunn Palace with its gardens is currently located, there were no gardens, zoos, or orangery because it was a simple mansion that was not previously owned by the monarch family.

However, the fact of ownership changed this territory and enabled the members of the monarch family to spend time in the palace. The first changes in the structure of the mansion were made by Eleonore Gonzaga who liked hunting and used this as the recreational place though this palace became her permanent residence as soon as she became a widow.

She can be considered the main contributor to the architectural style of the Schönbrunn Palace as well as the founder of the orangery which became one of the integral parts of the palace. In other words, orangery as well as the zoo can be considered one of the ways of tourist attraction to the palace when tourists are offered with a greater number of excursions in the same location.

The orangery can be perceived as the integral part of the palace as well as the zoo and Gloriette which is considered as a great addition to the architectural ensemble of the entire territory because it reflects the Roman side of the history of this mansion.

The Gloriette was not originally planned as a part of the territory because the palace was intended to be built on the place where the Gloriette is currently situated on the hill while the gardens lead from it to the palace and the Gloriette was a group of stones to be removed. The orangery as well as all other parts of the gardens including the great number of statues made of marble in the Roman Empire style and called Roman ruins contribute greatly to the overall image of the palace.

Besides, the palace is perceived as a single unit with all other architectural objects that can be found on the territory currently protected by the decision of the UNESCO Committee that suggested including the palace and related territories to the list of World Heritage.

Touristic directions. The guides and trip-books contain a great number of descriptions of the Schönbrunn Palace with regard to the most appropriate directions to visit the greater number of tourist traps in the shortest possible time.

In this respect, such guidebooks and Frommer’s enables the tourists to learn more about the history of the site and the important events related to this place while the real time excursion is aimed at demonstrating the benefits of the site including the magnificence of decorations, significance of the historic and cultural heritage of the place, and the relevance of the description in the book to the site and what a tourist can actually see while visiting the Schönbrunn Palace.

Every tourist tries to find the most appropriate way to visit as many sites as possible, especially when he/she is not staying in the city for a long time and wants to cover the entire touristic program in a few days.

The Schönbrunn Palace can be considered one of the most applicable places for contracted touristic programs because it contains many different locations that all contribute positively to the significance and beauty of the entire architectural and cultural ensemble.

Every location related to the Schönbrunn Palace should be seen; moreover, the location of the palace is favorable for tourists who want to see as many sites as possible without spending a lot on transportation from one part of the city to another.

The guidelines on the observation of the palace can be useful if a tourist knows about the history of the location. This means that professional guides can be more appropriate in such excursions than mere observations of the architectural style and decorations.

As the main value of the Schönbrunn Palace with its gardens, orangery, zoo, Gloriette which reflects the Roman part of the history and architectural value of the palace is perceived through the architectural changes that took place in the palace’s structure and style, and the number of Habsburg monarchs who contributed greatly to the overall image and perception of the palace and related territories, it is necessary to see this site due to its importance for the historical and cultural legacy.


In general, the Schönbrunn Palace turns out to be a crucial point in cultural, political, and advertising spheres of life. The palace is educated in different disciplines like History, Architecture, Art, Politics, Cultures, etc.

For a long period of time, a number of people tried to contribute the development of the palace in a variety of ways. Maria Theresa, Leopold I, and Franz Stephan were the historical figures whose impact of the site was amazing indeed. Due to their help and ideas, the Schönbrunn Palace became one of the main sights of the city or even the whole country.

The tourists try to learn more about the nation by means of the sites offered, and the chosen Schönbrunn Palace is the place where the history could be analyzed. Each room and stairs is defined as a very important part of the story. Baroque peculiarities may be observed on the walls of the rooms, squares preferred, and lights used.

There were two main designers who promoted the development of the building as the main art work; they were Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Nicolo Pacassi. These two men created in different periods, still, their ideas supplemented each other. There was no competition or the desire to create something magnificent.

It was a work, a pleasant work the aim of which was the introduction of a unique masterpiece that could attract the attention of many people. The achievements of these people were appreciated by the members of the imperial family, this is why Theresa and Leopold I found it reasonable to use these designs for several times.

The Schönbrunn Palace is the place that introduces the whole nation. The analysis of the chosen site proves that the citizens are ready to do their best to create the most captivating sights which could tell a lot about the nation.

Austria has survived after the two World Wars, revolutions, and the wars for land. It was not hard to protect such magnificent building as the Schönbrunn Palace. However, even such serious damage that was made during the World War Second, the construction was restored, and the citizens as well as tourists were able to enjoy the beauty of the place.

In addition to the perfectly developed construction, certain attention is paid to the objects which surround the palace. They are the garden those beauty amazes millions of people, the zoo that is now considered as one of the oldest zoos in the whole world, and orangery that provide people with a chance to enter the world of amazing plants.

Entering the territory of the Schönbrunn Palace, it is hard to make some guesses of what may impress the most. Each room and each acre of the territory has its own secretes and cause particular impressions. It is wrong to try to understand what makes the Schönbrunn Palace so amazing and attractive. It is better to forget the already defined prejudice or misunderstandings and enjoy the beauty of the place.

The Schönbrunn Palace is one of those constructions which make people respect the history and be eager to learn more about the events which took place long time ago. Visiting the rooms of the palace, the desire to imagine what emperors were preoccupied with appears. It is not always possible to understand all aspect of human history, and the chosen site should help to define the main principles of how the history was created within the walls f the palace.

There are so many people who have already visited the place and were captured with its beauty as well as there are many people who are eager to visit the place. And such human desire should become the main evidence of why such sights like the Schönbrunn Palace should be protected, improved, and contributed from time to time. History will never die and will be a crucial point to pay attention to until such places of interest like the Schönbrunn Palace are available to people with its history, mystery, and life lessons.

Reference List

Block, BV. Emperor Leopold I, Oil Painting, 1672, “whereabouts unknown”.

Commemorative Silver Coin. “” Web.

Haywood, Anthony and Sieg, Caroline. Vienna. Oakland: Lonely Planet, 2010

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. “Memorandum relaying the conversation between President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev.” Columbia Point, Boston, MA, 1961.

Marshall Cavendish Corporation. World and Its Peoples. Volume 7: Central Europe. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 2009.

MobileReference. Vienna Sights: a travel guide to the top 25 attractions in Vienna, Austria (Mobi Sights). MobileReference, 2010.

Porter, Darwin and Prince, Danforth. Frommer’s Vienna & the Danube Valley, Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2009.

Sheehan, Sean. Austria. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2003.

UNESCO. “Schönbrunn Palace: Map.” Web.

“UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.” Schloss Schönbrunn. Web.

University of Texas at Austin. “Historical Map of Central Europe: The Austrian War 1809: The territory ceded by Austria at the Peace of Schönbrunn of October 14, 1809.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912.

Ver Berkmores, Ryan, Berry, Oliver, Cole, Geert, and Else, David. Western Europe. Oakland: Lonely Planet, 2009.

Vischer, Georg Matthäus. “Katterburg and Gonzaga palais.” Copper engraving, 1672.

Von Erlach, Johann Bernhard Fischer, Fischer von Erlach’s 1688 Design, 1721, “whereabouts unknown”.

World Heritage Committee. Report on Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Twentieth session, Merida, Mexico, 1996. WHC-96/CONF.201/21, 10 March 1997.


  1. Sean Sheehan, Austria (Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2003), 5.
  2. Ryan Ver Berkmoes and others, Western Europe, (Oakland: Lonely Planet, 2009), 50.
  3. Anthony Haywood and Caroline Sieg, Vienna (Oakland: Lonely Planet, 2010), 123.
  4. Schloss Schönbrunn, “UNESCO World Cultural Heritage,” (Austria, n.d.).
  5. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Fischer von Erlach’s 1688 Design, 1721, “whereabouts unknown”.
  6. Darwin Porter and Danforth Prince, Frommer’s Vienna & the Danube Valley, (Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2009), 140.
  7. Block, Emperor Leopold I, Oil Painting, 1672, “whereabouts unknown”.
  8. Darwin Porter and Danforth Prince, Frommer’s Vienna & the Danube Valley, (Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2009), 140
  9. Georg Matthäus Vischer, “Katterburg and Gonzaga palais”, copper engraving, 1672.
  10. Marshall Cavendish Corporation, World and Its Peoples. Volume 7: Central Europe (Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 2009), 916.
  11. Vischer, op. cit.
  12. University of Texas at Austin, The Cambridge Modern History Atlas, “Historical Map of Central Europe: The Austrian War 1809: The territory ceded by Austria at the Peace of Schönbrunn of October 14, 1809,” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912), 93.
  13. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, “Memorandum relaying the conversation between President Kennedy and Premier Khrushchev,” (Columbia Point, Boston, MA, 1961).
  14. MobileReference, Vienna Sights: a travel guide to the top 25 attractions in Vienna, Austria (Mobi Sights), (MobileReference, 2010), n. p.
  15. MobileReference, op. cit.
  16. Commemorative Silver Coin. “Austria: Schönbrunn Palace.”
  17. MobileReference, op. cit.
  18. UNESCO. “Schönbrunn Palace: Map.”
  19. UNESCO. “Schönbrunn Palace: Map.”
  20. UNESCO, op. cit.
  21. World Heritage Committee. Report on Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Twentieth session, Merida, Mexico, 1996. (WHC-96/CONF.201/21, 10 March 1997), 64.
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