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Sickle cell and Anemia Essay

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Updated: May 26th, 2019

Introduction

The essay is an in depth critical examination-a quantitative critique of two article based on sickle cell and anemia titled “Development and Evaluation of a Sickle Cell Disease Assessment Instrument” and “Iron Deficiency Anemia: Following Prenatal Nutrition Interventions” written by Day Sara and Leblanc Caroline et al published in 2004 and 2007 respectively. It has been noted with concern that it is important for researchers and scholars to be capable to critically analyze studies done by others (Beth, 2010). This is one way of learning regarding research works for them to be able to better their knowledge on the same.

“Development and Evaluation of a Sickle Cell Disease Assessment Instrument”

It is worth to note that although the research question for the article written by Day S. is not stated under a subheading, it is evident that there are two research question that guided the study; regarding developing a sickle cell disease assessment instrument and evaluation of the instrument’s reliability and validity. Similarly another question is what the characteristic or critical attributes of sickle cell are. The study employs a qualitative study approach Day, S. (2004). The reason being that the information generated is on a particular case under study, Assessment Instrument for sickle cell anemia.

It is a requirement that a research study have both independent and dependent variable. For the article, independent variables are all those critical attributes being studied and include mean hemoglobin, mean leukocyte count, incident of pain requiring emergency room visit and hospitalization and date of occurrence, incident of dactylitis and date of occurrence and incidence of acute chest syndrome and date of occurrence.

The dependent variable in this study was sickle cell anemia. Similarly, the article clearly indicates conceptual definition of independent variables and these variables include; dactylitis, acute chest syndrome, date of occurrence, pain events, leukocyte count and hemoglobin. Additionally, Day Sara manages to provide the readers with a conceptual definition of the dependent variable which is the succinct definition of sickle cell.

Readers are made aware of the possible courses of action to be taken and similarly the approach used by the researcher to arrive at the problem of the study. It is worth noting that the conceptual definition has made it possible for the author to easily link the variables under study (Day, 2004).

All the conceptual definition of both independent and dependent variables has made the author to easily communicate to the varied audiences concerning the results obtained in the research. It is also possible for other scholars to replicate what has been done in the article.

Research ethics demand that authors should clearly indicate operational definition of both independent and dependent variable they are studying to avoid confusion in communication. The author has gone an extra mile by not only defining the variables in her study but also explaining them in details. This helps address the issue of confusion in communication as well as making it possible for other scholars to replicate the procedure. This is attributed to the fact that the article has a clear explanation of how the independent variables were arrived at and the measurement of validity and reliability (Burns & Grove, 2003).

A close examination of the article clearly indicates that there are a number of relationships studied. For instance, having an accurate assessment instrument to detect early high-risks signs of sickle cell anemia and reduction in the rates of mortality and morbidity is evident. Another relationship is high-risk of attributes and severe cases of sickle cell. The relationship makes the reader appreciate the importance of the study.

Similarly, as pointed out by Beth, 2010 such knowledge make the relevant stakeholders especially nurses, parents and medics to take necessary steps in saving the lives of children suffering from the disorder. It also gives room to other scholars to carry out research on the same line of reasoning.

The three extraneous variables that the author could examine and impact on the outcome are the following; education level and experience of nurses, gender of the children under study and reticulocyte count.

Carrying out reticulocyte count would have influence the author in documenting whether anemia is cause by fewer red blood cell or greater loss the red blood cell (Day, 2004). Similarly, it could help establish whether anemia treatment is really working. The education level and experience of nurses could impact on the values attained when testing validity and reliability. It has been noted that SS/Sβ0 individuals had a decrease in steady-state SpO2 and influenced among other factors gender of the victims.

The author concluded that although the efforts to predict children/infants suffering from sickle cell help in initiating a timely medication of the disorder, there is dire need to have in place an assessment instrument that will accurately assess the infants before referring them to therapies that do not have risks. This is vital in reducing the rates of children succumbing to the disorder later in life (Polit & Beck, 2007).

“Iron Deficiency Anemia: Following Prenatal Nutrition Interventions”

Article two is a research conducted to study iron deficiency anemia prevalence by following prenatal nutritional interventions. Despite the fact that the authors did not in a succinct manner states the research questions and hypotheses, a close examination of the research make the reader easily come up with two major research questions; these revolves around how prevalent is iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women and infant from a low-income background and what are the major/common factors for development of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women (Leblanc, et al. 2007). In my view, the research question suits the problem and readers can be able to with ease establish them.

The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approach. This is attributed to the fact that the study generated both numeric and non-numeric data that help in arriving at the conclusion. The use of this study approach has made the authors come up with comprehensive and authentic conclusion as well as recommendations.

The authors of the article did come up with a number of independent variables. These include; iron deficiency anemia and major common risks factors for development of iron deficiency anemia, women education, family status, ethnicity and social economic status.

Similarly there are a set of dependent variables that the authors have brought out clearly and include hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferring saturation (Leblanc, et al. 2007) Dependent variable are those attributes in research that are affected by independent variable during a study while independent variables are attributes or factors that can be varied or manipulated during a study.

From a close examination of the whole study, there is no indication of conceptual definition of dependent variables. However, the authors did manage to list them iron deficiency anemia and major common risks factors for development of iron deficiency anemia, women education, family status, ethnicity and social economic status.

Similarly there are a set of dependent variables that the authors have brought out clearly and include hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferring saturation (Leblanc, et al. 2007). On the same note, there is some evidence of conceptual definition of dependent variables. This has made it possible for readers to be aware of the possible courses of action to be taken and similarly the approach used by the researcher from developing research problem to conclusion.

Strictly speaking, the authors did mention the various dependent and independent variables but have not fully defined the variables in a succinct manner. It is worth to bear in mind that studies that depict a clear operational definition of both independent and dependent variable are easy to be replicated by others and there is no or minimal confusion during communication (Polit & Beck, 2007).

For this reason, the study lack adequate operational definition leaving some audiences with difficulties in trying to gasp the content of the study. However, the slight operational definition especially in terms of methodology can make the study procedures to be replicated with ease.

Throughout the research, there is clear evidence that a number of relationships were studied. For example, the relationships between IDA prevalence and breastfeeding, social-economic status of women and age to mention but a few were discussed (Leblanc, et al. 2007). The relationships findings are what guided the authors in arriving to the conclusions.

Although it is true that a research need to set its delimitations by defining the variables to be studied, this research did have the potential of including the following extraneous variables; previous participation of the women in Early Childhood Initiative program, family history of the women concerning IDA and education level and experience of the nutritionists. It is evident that mother who did participate in previous ECI program if incorporated in the study will impact on the results and eventually the conclusion (Burns & Grove, 2003).

On the same note, women who had IDA history in their family tree would also give insight on the results obtained. With regards to level of education and experience of nutritionist, those with higher level of education and longer years of experience would help generate more accurate information as compared to those with lower or same level of education but with minimal years of experience.

According to Leblanc, et al. 2007 it is established that anemia prevalence in women and infant from a lower low income background was similar with that of the same women and infant from a higher income background. Similarly, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in infant is analogous to what has been found in the groups of high risks. They contend that there is need to have in place effective mechanisms in place to curb the problem especially in the groups deemed susceptible.

References

Beth, L. (2010). “Guidelines for Critique of Research Reports”. Web.

Burns, N. & Grove, S. (2003). Understanding Nursing Research. New York: Blackwell Publishing.

Day, S. (2004). “Development and Evaluation of a Sickle Cell Disease Assessment Instrument” Pediatric Nursing. 30(6): 1-9.

Leblanc, et al. (2007). “Iron Deficiency Anemia: Following Prenatal Nutrition Interventions” Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research. 68(4):222-225.

Polit, F. & Beck, C. (2007). Essentials of Nursing Research. Baltimore: Lippincott.

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